Endnotes


[1] For a compilation of definitions, see Ronstadt, R. C. (1984). Entrepreneurship.Dover, MA: Lord Publishing, 28; Stevenson, H. H. & Gumpert, D. E. (1985). The heart of entrepreneurship. Harvard Business Review, March/April, 85–94; Barton Cunningham, J. & Lischeron, J. (1991). Defining entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, January,45–61; Audretsch, D. B. (2003). Entrepreneurship: A survey of the literature. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; Berglann, H., Moen, E. R., Røed, K. & Skogstrøm, J. F. (2011). Entrepreneurship: Origins and returns. Labour Economics,18(2), 180–93; McMullan, W. E. & Kenworthy, T. P. (2015). Modernizing Schumpeter: Toward a new general theory of entrepreneurship. In Creativity and Entrepreneurial Performance. Springer International Publishing, 57–72.

[2] Craig, R. D. (2004). Handbook of Polynesian mythology. ABC-CLIO, 168.

[3] See Dana, L. P. (2011). World encyclopedia of entrepreneurship. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar; Kent, C. A., Sexton, D. L. & Vesper, K. H. (1982). Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Montagno, R. V. & Kuratko, D. F. (1986). Perception of entrepreneurial success characteristics.American Journal of Small Business, Winter, 25–32; Begley, T. M. & Boyd, D. P. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, Winter,79–91; Kuratko, D. F. (2002).Entrepreneurship. International encyclopedia of business and management (2nd ed.). London: Routledge Publishers, 168–76.

Australia's Spiritualist Water Entrepreneur . . . and Prime Minister

Spiritualist entrepreneur Alfred Deakin ignited the 'vital spark' of irrigation in rural Victoria

Speech commemorating the launch of the exhibition ‘Alfred Deakin: The Man’ at the Alfred Deakin Prime Ministerial Library in Geelong, Victoria, August 10, 2011. This is part of the author's focus on entrepreneurship, climate change, sustainability, and the biosphere.

Alfred Deakin, Entreprener

Introduction

This article commemorates the 2011 launch of the exhibition ‘Alfred Deakin: The Man’ at the Alfred Deakin Prime Ministerial Library in Geelong, Victoria, Australia.  We apply the modern concept of ‘entrepreneur’ to thrice-Australian Prime Minister Alfred Deakin.  We use historical records, including Deakin’s own writings, to uncover his ‘enterprising personality’ as a social and business entrepreneur. 

The period of analysis is 1885-1890 when Deakin was in his late twenties and was serving as Minister for Water Supply and President of the Royal Commission on Water Supply.  Deakin’s vision of an irrigated Murray Basin drew upon his Victorian liberalism and on his spiritualism, viewing water as ‘life force’ that could provide the ‘vital spark’ to the land through engineering and irrigation science.  His vision and self-efficacy saw him travel throughout the United States and Mexico to examine irrigation works, dams, weirs and canals in search of technology to ‘free the soul’ of inland Australia. 

Dreamer and water entrepreneur

Enterprising Mr. Deakin. National Portrait Gallery, Canberra. Gift of Ronald A Walker 2009.

Alfred Deakin – the dreamer, the believer, the achiever, known as the Father of Federation and the Father of Irrigation in Australia. We take an in-depth and more personal look at Alfred Deakin the man. My topic is ‘Alfred as Entrepreneur’, for he was imbued with that enterprising spirit that possesses some of us.  True, Alfred was a failed business entrepreneur and director of some very dubious companies.  It is a miracle that he did not end up discredited and in insolvency as many of his friends did.  But on the other side, Alfred was an enormously successful social and political entrepreneur, charismatic and communicative, risk-taking and forward-thinking. 

On a personal note, I discovered that Alfred and I were connected—emotionally and even personally--and this motivated me to examine his life as a social and political entrepreneur. In the course of this research I discovered that Alfred actually visited my home town of Indio, California as he road throughout the ‘Wild West’ on a research tour of America.  I discovered to my delight that not only did he have well-known traits of an entrepreneur.  Like myself, he was a visionary and dreamer of grand projects, and an admirer of American entrepreneurship.  He was also a researcher. One amazing discoveries was that Alfred was a competent survey researcher.  He used a 75-question survey instrument of great concision to interview the great engineers and irrigationists of America, and his book, ‘Irrigation in Western America’, should merit a posthumous doctorate. 

Young Alfred

The field of academic entrepreneurship is rife with definitions, and I won’t bore you here with the literature wars, but here are two definitions that fit Alfred to a tee:  An entrepreneur is ‘a person who habitually creates and innovates to build something of value around perceived opportunities (Bolton & Thompson, 2004); someone who ‘[pursues] opportunity beyond the resources [he] currently controls’ (Stevenson & Gumpert, 1985). 

Postcard showing the Hon Alfred Deakin, by AR Burnet, after Deakin was voted one of 'The Ten Best Citizens of Victoria' by the Herald, around 1906. National Museum of Australia.

These characteristics of opportunity seeking, taking risks beyond security, and having the tenacity to push an idea through to reality all combined in Alfred Deakin to make him a singularly enterprising personality.  He reminds me of the mission of the Starship Enterprise ‘to boldly go where no [one] has gone before’. Alfred had an attitude to life, an attitude of exploring, of developing, of leading and of taking initiatives.

In the entrepreneurship literature, you are more likely to be an entrepreneur if you know one (Klees, 1995).  Alfy had a school mate, the sociable but cheeky Theodore Fink (1855–1942), who influenced Alfred’s enterprising affairs—for good and for bad--throughout his life.  As Deakin biographer John Rickard writes, ‘Fink was a born entrepreneur, organising lotteries (nibs, penholders and blotting paper serving as school currency), and starting the school paper’, to which Alfy contributed.  Alfy emulated his friend by starting a club for essayists and championing a law court (Rickard, 1996, p. 29). 

Alfred went on to study law half-heartedly at Melbourne, but he only gained a certificate; not surprisingly, his law career never proved to be successful.  I believe that he recognised early that his lot was not for a 'compliance discipline'.  He didn’t want to manage someone else’s affairs.  He had what psychologists call a strong ‘internal locus of control’, where a person believes that he can control events--or better said, that events result primarily from the own behaviour and actions.  These are another two characteristics of entrepreneurs. Alfy had a drive for self-employment and to become sole proprietor of his own destiny. 

This was very early the case when, through the brilliance of his writing and oratory, he came in contact with David Syme, the media mogul of fifty-year career as publisher and editor of 'The Age' and 'The Leader' newspapers.  Deakin became Symes’ journalistic protégé and this ultimately enabled him to earn his living. Between 1878 and 1883, when he was elected Prime Minister, Deakin wrote regularly for Syme's newspapers on a wide variety of topics. An omnivorous reader and assiduous writer, Deakin filled an endless stream of notebooks and diaries.   

Alfred excelled at journalism, which became his major occupation for some years and provided a useful source of income for most of his life.  One of the rare facts that I discovered in my research is that even when he was Prime Minister he wrote ‘secret commentaries’ on Australian politics under the by-line ‘Our Special Correspondent in Australia’ for the London Morning Post from 1901-1914-- (Deakin & La Nauze, 1968).  IVery few people knew of this secret activity, including the Australian Tax Office offices, where Deakin religiously declared his yearly earnings of £500.  

One of the hallmarks of an entrepreneur is to think creatively and very much out of the box.  A quintessential Victoria liberal (not at all in the sense of the word today), Deakin was an advocate of temperance, a writer of dramas, essays, poetry and treatises on subjects as diverse as funerary architecture in India and anti-sweating legislation, and a five-act blank-verse drama of a Renaissance-era Flemish painter. 

Typical of many liberal Free Thinkers of his day, he was also a spiritualist. This community supported such liberal causes such as the abolition of slavery and women's suffrage. Alfred's search for a Higher Truth drew him to its mystic endeavours.  At one point he even took post-mortem dictation from John Bunyan, who died in 1688 (Grosz & Maloney, 2008-2009).  Denounced in the papers for ‘outraging religion’, Deakin did withdraw from the spiritualist movement, but if he were alive today he would probably have sought inspiration in animism.

Alfred Deakin’s Enterprising Biography

Let us begin with his essential details.  Alfred was the child of English immigrants who immigrated and had settled in Collingwood, Melbourne by 1853.  Alfred was born three years later at 90 George Street, Fitzroy, later moved to South Yarra, and entered Melbourne Grammar School. 

Alfred’s father William worked as a storekeeper and water-carter, then moved to become a partner and manager in Cobb and Co., the famous stagecoach company founded by American entrepreneur Freeman Cobb, who ran American-imported stagecoaches to and from the Victorian goldfields.  Freeman Cobb’s name is synonymous an enterprising company using the latest methods and equipment, and his management style was one of bringing out the best in people (Austin). Alfy worked as a manager at Cobb and the tall tales of the Yanks must have sparked his imagination about the American Wild West.  

At Melbourne Grammar, Alfred was not a serious student at first, distracted as he was by his dream world and reading of world literature.  However, he was soon discovered and came under the influence of the school's headmaster, John Edward Bromby (1809–1889), whose oratorical style Deakin emulated.  Bromby was furtively proud of his pupil; when Deakin  was elected to Assembly in 1879, Bromby noted the boy’s success in his diary but quipped wryly, 'Would that it had been in a better cause' [than politics] (Australian Dictionary of Biography Online).  Bromby equipped Alfred with the gift of oratory.  Indeed, Alfy was a very charismatic communicator.

What led Alfred Deakin to earn so many several memorable sobriquets in his long and distinguished career? Affable Alfred, Father of Irrigation, Father of Irrigation, Father of the Liberal Party, Minister for Water Supply, Attorney-General, and Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia not once but three times?  I am going to make the argument that Alfred Deakin was a very enterprising character. 

Alfred and irrigation: successful social and political entrepreneur

Alfred’s is a story of vision and achievement in the face of adversity. 

In the 1880s, northern Victoria was a sunbaked wasteland suffering a severe drought, with much native scrub and native animals on the verge of perishing.  Its only asset was the lazy Murray River crawling across the sandy plain.  Amazingly, settlers had no knowledge of irrigation yet scratched their paltry subsistence just back from the Murray’s bank praying for rain and sending their miserable product via steamboats plying the trade to lonely stations from the lower South Australian reaches up to Swan Hill.  Aboriginal bands still roamed the banks and the mail coaches made the last trickle of European civilisation until their lifeline was sucked out.  One writer called The Mallee (Murray Darling and Riverina bioregions) ‘a Sahara of hissing winds’.  It was an outpost region where every white man was still a pioneers and every white woman a heroine (NA, 1928).

Irrigating the Murray
Irrigating Mildura Orchards, by JW Lindt, 1890. State Library of Victoria H96.160/1915

Ever optimistic in the fight against nature, Parliament in 1883 passed a Mallee Pastoral Leases Act dividing the Murray frontage into small blocks to give access to water.  This was in the time of the great Australian innovation, the Stump jump plough, so with water from the edge, soon the paddle steamers were taking great loads down the Murray.

Stump Jump plough
Stump Jump plough conquered Australia's outback

The next challenge was to create small fruit-growing blocks.  This is where Alfred enters the scene.  In 1884, he was serving as both Attorney-General and Commissioner for Public Works and Water Supply, and was appointed president of a Royal Commission on Water Supply. 

Alfred was a ‘vitalist’ in that he believed that irrigation science and engineering could finally reveal the long-still ‘life force’ that had been shrouded by the melancholy silence of inland Australia.  This element is often referred to as the ‘vital spark,’ ‘energy’ or ‘élan vital’, which some equate with the ‘soul’. Through irrigation, Deakin felt, ‘the gloomy legends of interior wastes’ could be disproved (Cathcart, 2009, p. 202). 

Irrigation in Victoria in 1885
Irrigation in Victoria in 1885

Irrigation also appealed to Deakin’s notion of Jeffersonian democracy. This meant equality of opportunity by opening up land to small holders while the State safeguarded the rights and property of citizens. It also appealed to his support for temperance and civic virtue, where the yeoman farmer could be independent from corrupting city influences.

Research trip to America to study irrigation

At age 29 years old, with Pattie, his wife, two journalists and an engineer in tow, the President of the Royal Commission wasted no time in setting off for America to investigate the miracle of irrigation that was occurring in California and the American West.  What he found was indeed a blossoming of the deserts where hydro-engineers and water-preneurs had made the sandy soil extremely productive with oranges, grapes, even date palms. 

They embarked in January 1885 on the long voyage through New Zealand and Samoa to Hawaii and onward to San Francisco, arriving there on 26 January 1885 to a bay so large, he wrote, that it could ‘contain all the navies of the world safely’ (Deakin, 1885b).  He remarked at the marvel of electric lights, and was impressed that the warehouses were larger than on Smith Street in Collingwood. 

Deakin's Trip to America
Deakin's Irrigation Research Trip to America in 1885

Thus began an investigative tour of America that went from coast to coast and even down as far as Mexico City to view the intricate system of Aztec canals.  Deakin and his entourage spent every waking moment examining irrigation works, weirs, dams and canals throughout America from San Francisco to Boston.  In two-and-half months they used the marvellous train system and the luxurious Pullman coaches on steam locomotives of the day.  This would have been some of the first professional tourism of its kind.  Remember, the transcontinental railroad had only been completed in 1869 when the ‘Golden Spike’ was driven to join the rails from East to West coast.  You can imagine what the mid-eighties were like in the United States from all of the Hollywood cowboy movies.  Ned Kelly may have already been caught and executed, but Wyatt Earp and his brothers were just fighting the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.

Deakin’s travel diaries were as if a tornado were touching paper (Deakin, 1885b).  Furious penmanship reveals the brilliant mind that was recording impressions on everything from canal construction to fine opera and theatre performances.  A map of 1880’s US railroads helped me to chart his trip from San Francisco first down through the fertile Central Valley of California and over the Tehachapi into the Los Angeles basin, where he was particularly intrigued with the Spanish missions.  He carried on over the Banning Pass and down into the Coachella Valley where I grew up, where water pours off the mountains into underground aquifers that made this below-sea-level valley an oasis.  Through Phoenix to El Paso, where he took the great journey all the way down to Mexico City especially to visit the Aztec lakes and canals. 

The party returned to El Paso and dashed across the deserts and prairies through New Mexico to Kansas City, Missouri. Touching down in Chicago he attended a play before racing along Lake Erie to Buffalo, New York, where he took in Niagara Falls.  Down through the Catskills to New York City, he was especially thrilled to see the Brooklyn Bridge and the elevated rail.  He visited Boston to see the Boston Tea Party site and Concord to view where the ‘shot heard round the world’ was fired, but his most cherished words are for his visits to Ralph Emerson’s grave and to Thoreau’s famous Walden Pond.  In Washington, DC, he visited the patent office then raced back to see ‘Much Ado about Nothing’ at the Star Theatre in New York.  Back through Chicago this time he diverted northward toward Denver and other irrigation sites in Colorado, all the while taking in the opera.  Finally he crossed the Great Nevada Desert and viewed the glamour of Lake Tahoe and Yosemite Valley. 

Alfred meets the Chaffey Brothers and convinces them to come to Mildura

William Chaffey
William Chaffey was an irrigation planner who with his older brother George developed what became the cities of Etiwanda, California, Ontario, California, and Upland, California in the United States of America, as well as the cities of Mildura, Victoria and the town of Renmark, South Australia, in Australia.

Now I have taken you across the continent not speaking in detail of the most important meeting of the entire trip.  Shortly after arriving in San Francisco, Alfred was advised to get in touch with the Chaffey Brothers of Los Angeles, and in his third week in America, on 11 February 1885, he met George and W.B Chaffey, who had established the successful Etiwanda irrigation settlement about 60 miles east of Los Angeles near the area where I call home. 

George Chaffey
George Chaffey (1848-1932), by unknown photographer. La Trobe Picture Collection, State Library of Victoria, RWP/31907

Journalist J.L. Dow comically describes his arrival in The Age (Dow, 1885).  The day before Alfred had been telling his usual ‘tall tales’ about Australia trying to out-do the Americans about the size of stations and numbers of sheep.  ‘If you want to know the biggest sheep man in all Australia’, he said, he shore last year 1,000,000 sheep across three different states’, to which the Americans’ jaws dropped.  Arriving the next day at the train station in Ontario, as George Chaffey found Alfred in the crowd, a figure emerged waving a sheet of paper.  It was the Western Union agent, who for all to hear read out the telegram announcing Deakin’s arrival:  ‘Four gentlemen from Australia will have breakfast with you and treat them very well.  We like them very much. They are more like Americans than ordinary tourists, and they carry with them the champion liar of the United States’. 

George Chaffey . . . this is what rang my memory bells.  I remembered as a student visiting Chaffey College near my home.  As part of their model colony, the Chaffey brothers envisioned a local college that would provide a quality education to the citrus growing families in the expanding ‘Inland Empire’.

Born in Ontario, Canada, George Chaffey (1848-1932) was an irrigation pioneer, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur, and his younger brother William Benjamin (1856-1926) was agriculturist and irrigation planner (Norris).  By the early 1880’s the Chaffeys had joined other Canadian families in the Santa Ana River irrigation settlement. The large profits that flowed from the Riverside venture encouraged George and William to become partners in the new irrigation colonies, named by them Etiwanda and Ontario, on the Cucamonga Plain, the site of the then-longest telephone line in the world, from Los Angeles to Ontario. 

These settlements were based upon the purchase of land and water-rights by the Chaffeys at a low price, and resale to settlers in 10-acre (4 ha) blocks, with a mutual irrigation company to distribute water on a non-profit basis. Much of the success of irrigation at Etiwanda and Ontario was due to the use of steam driven pumps and cement pipes in the main water channels. Planned towns, social institutes and prohibition were features of both colonies, which were regarded as model settlements throughout western America. (Powell, 1989)

You can imagine Alfred’s first meeting with the Chaffeys.  After seeing hundreds of acres planted with citrus and vine irrigated by latest technology, recalling the Australian drought, and the potential of the Murray Basin, Alfred would have said something like ‘Boys, let me tell you about the Murray’.  He was so persuasive that within one year the Chaffeys had sold out their entire holdings in California and brought £300,000 to Melbourne as ‘foreign investors’. 

Alfred was impressed by two factors in what he saw.  Naturally he was impressed by the engineering technology of the steam-driven pumps and water works which had made a desert into a prosperous (and temperant!) farming community of productive blocks.  Beyond this, another thing struck him: 

It is not only the design of an ingenious implement, or a clever piece of engineering . . .  The most potent factor in the achievement of American successes is the untiring energy and self-reliance of the people, [who] . . . unfettered by tradition . . . and original in idea, have conquered difficulty after difficulty . . .(Deakin, 1885a, p. 25)

This Victorian liberal was impressed with the ‘civilising effects’ of private entrepreneurial ventures and companies. 

It permits of society, of the establishment of schools, churches, and libraries, and the enjoyment of comforts which cannot be secured in isolation.  It furnishes in fine a framework for communication organisations and the beginning of local government (Cited in Powell, 1989, pp. 109-110).

Realising his vision

'YOUNG AUSTRALIA. VICTORIAN MEN OF THE TIME'. Daily Telegraph in Sydney on 20 February 1886.

Affected by what he had seen, after his return to Victoria in May 1885, Alfred personally compiled the copious notes, diaries, and records from his 75-question survey into a report entitled Irrigation in Western America (Deakin, 1885a).  Written at immense speed, it nonetheless became a classic in the irrigation literature in both the United States and Australia and still resides with pride of place in the Jefferson Reading Room of the Library of Congress in Washington.  He then oversaw the passage of the Water Supply and Irrigation Act 1886. His speech recommending this Act to Parliament waxed eloquent on the potential for irrigation to develop Victoria into a haven of egalitarian plenty and liberty. Using his eloquent and persuasive oratory, he made it difficult for critics to development their points without being branded as miserly and narrow-minded.  Different from American practice, though, Deakin's Act vested all rights to water use in the Crown, provided for the government construction of major irrigation works, and envisaged a series of Trusts managing irrigation at the local level.

1885 - Royal Commission on Water Supply Irrigation in Western America, First Progress Report. A. Deakin
Chaffey Bros Ltd promoted their irrigation colonies through The Australian Irrigation Colonies, known as The Red Book,

In October 1886, the Chaffey brothers received agreement from the Victorian government on favourable terms.  The Opposition called it a ‘Yankee land grab’, a sinister sale of birthright to foreigners (Powell, 1989, p. 122).  But newspapers in London ran full pages advertisements and the company even had offices on Queen Victoria Street, London E.C.  Early progress was spectacular and by 1890 there were 3,000 residents in a full replica of Ontario, California, replete with prohibition and an agricultural college. 

By 1887, two entrepreneurial ventures had been created on the Murray River. Built by the Chaffeys, Renmark (under separate contract with South Australia) and Mildura (in Victoria) were irrigation colonies involved in the cultivation of fruit.  The sites were run-down cattle stations where soil, climate and the level of the Murray River proved to be conducive to vines and citrus.  Paddle steamers were available for local freight, but the railheads were more than 250 km away on bush tracks. 

Unfortunately, the Victorian land boom collapsed in 1891 and capital dried up for further development.  The River proved less navigable during drought than they had foreseen, and land transport of fruit to Melbourne resulted in damage and blemished produce.  Settlers did not adapt away from pip fruit, and they were not experienced in vines for sultanas, not to mention wine, since the community was temperant.  But the real catastrophe was the ‘Invasion of the Yabbies’ who found the irrigation canals quite to their liking and undermined the levies.  Worse yet, lack of finance prevented the all-important concrete canals, which had made the California experiment so productive. 

The Chaffey had mistakenly expected to find an American system of governance that allowed private ownership of water and land grants to aid new enterprises.  In a break with US law, the Victorian Act decreed that no private individual could control the river or the use of its water.  The control of the river was in the hands of the Crown.  Water was too valuable to be in the hands of the capitalists and private monopolists. Indosoing, Deakin had been seeking to avoid the ‘water wars’ that plagued California.  But this meant there was no incentive for private capital to persist.  Having expended their own capital and unable to borrow, the Chaffeys filed for bankruptcy in December 1895, amid allegations that they were a gang of swindlers who had shaken down the government for their own private gain. 

W.B. stayed behind in Mildura and for forty years dedicated himself to the Australian Dried Fruits industry, and today the irrigated Murray basin represents one of the largest and richest dried fruits areas in the world. 

Brother George was quite undeterred by failure and delighted in thumbing his nose at the Victorians, as he must have said, ‘Boys, I have another grand project in mind.  I’m going back to California to divert the entire Colorado River westward and flood an arid but fertile desert’.  In 1901, George did indeed turn the water westward to create the largest irrigated area of one million acres in the world.  The complexity and variety of problems associated with this eventually successful irrigation project attest to George Chaffey's abilities as a master builder, manager, diplomat and of course entrepreneur. 

In the end, the Chaffeys are still revered and the Victorian government eventually yielded to popular support for irrigation by bailing out the Mildura scheme. 

Conclusions

Alfred’s enterprising spirit and his visionary achievements show us that we have a grand legacy to live up to.  Like successful entrepreneurs everywhere:

  • Alfred attracted talented and innovative people dedicated to discovery and innovation.
  • He exploited innovations that serve the public good.
  • He leveraged ideas and discoveries for a better world.

|References

Austin, K. A. Cobb, Freeman (1830–1878) Australian Dictionary of Biography Online,, (Vol. 2011).

Australian Dictionary of Biography Online. {Australian Dictionary of Biography Online,  #2691}  Retrieved 20 May 2011, from http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080275b.htm

Bolton, B. K., & Thompson, J. (2004). Entrepreneurs: Talent, temperament, technique: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Cathcart, M. (2009). The water dreamers : the remarkable history of our dry continent. Melbourne: Text Pub.

Deakin, A. (1885a). Irrigation in Western America.  n.p.:  Retrieved from www.nla.gov.au.

Deakin, A. (1885b). Travel Letters from America. Hand-written diary. Digital Collections Manuscripts. National Library of Australia.                http://www.mdba.gov.au/sites/default/files/Deakin_diary/Deakin_diary.docx

Deakin, A., & La Nauze, J. A. (1968). Federated Australia: selections from letters to the Morning Post 1900-1910: Melbourne University.

Dow, J. L. (1885, nd). Americans and 'Big Things', The Age.            

Grosz, C., & Maloney, S. (2008-2009). Alfred Deakin & John Bunyan. The Monthly:                Australian Politics, Society, & Culture.

NA. (1928, 24 November). Irrigation Journey, Sidney Morning Herald.            

Norris, R. Chaffey, William Benjamin (1856 - 1926) Australian Dictionary of Biography Online,, (Vol. 2011).

Powell, J. M. (1989). Watering the garden state : water, land, and community in Victoria, 1834-1988. Sydney ; Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Rickard, J. (1996). A family romance : the Deakins at home. Carlton South, Vic.: Melbourne University Press.

Stevenson, H. H., & Gumpert, D. E. (1985). The heart of entrepreneurship. Harvard Business.              


The Making of an Entrepreneurial University: Plymouth State University

Located in the Boston metropolitan area, Plymouth State University started as a teachers college, became a training ground for agriculture, teaching, business, and industry. PSU is now a regional comprehensive university (RCU), what some call a ‘people’s university’ in recognition of its mission to give lower-and middle-income students access to higher education, not to mention to support regional economies and civic and cultural life. 

PSU plays important roles in injecting ‘high impact practices’ into the regional economy. We lower the barriers to admission to a higher education. We prize teaching and student-centered projects. We enroll a large proportion of underrepresented students—including veterans, adult learners, ethnic minorities, first-generation students, and immigrants.

PSU was founded in 1871 under the Morrill Act (1862) signed by President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War to fund public colleges focused on ‘agriculture and the mechanical arts’. As part of the University System of New Hampshire (USNH), PSU is also part of the hundred-plus innovative land-grant universities network, whose mission originally was—within the context of the liberal arts—to teach practical engineering, agriculture, and science and to accelerate the rise of America’s nineteenth-century ‘Industrial Revolution’. These institutions generated the transformative innovations needed to propel America’s emergence as economic world leader by 1900, and are doing the same thing today in the digital age.

In 2015, Donald L. Birx became the 15th president of Plymouth State University. His vision was to restructure the university to become more innovative and entrepreneurial around Integrated Cross-Disciplinary Clusters:

We truly are creating a 21st Century University built around the key principles of exploration and discovery and innovation and entrepreneurship, Donald Birx said in 2016.

The University launched an experiment to implement university-wide Learning Model based around innovation and entrepreneurship.  The University announced organisational changes that did away with academic departments, schools, colleges, deans and chairs in favour of interdisciplinary Integrated Clusters.

At PSU, Clusters are defined as a trans-departmental units of faculty, staff and students ‘who come together with the intention to engage in collaborative, interdisciplinary work that transcends or takes advantage of individual disciplines’. 

Academic disciplines at PSU are no longer organisationally locked behind silos. Faculty and students may choose to actively participate in multiple clusters.

In 2020, Donald L. Birx, together with the Innovation & Entrepreneurship Cluster, has started to review the role of clusters, particularly within the adverse environments of declining student numbers, not to mention the Corona Virus pandemic, which has devastated the economy and society.

This is a case analysis of how an American regional comprehensive university can advance a new Learning Model that diffuses the tension between departments while advancing an innovation and entrepreneurship agenda.


Over Winter and Spring 2019, I have released part by part a series of posts about how a regional comprehensive university can accelerate campus-wide growth of innovation and entrepreneurship throughout all disciplines. Part 1 is the abstract and summary. In Part 2, we recount the history of Plymouth State University and outline its innovative and novel learning model. We review the structural problems that forced PSU to launch an audacious experiment, a university-wide learning model based on Innovation & Entrepreneurship and on Integrated Clusters. Part 3 examines PSU's opportunity to become a more enterprising institution drawing upon cross-disciplinary programs with diverse missions. In Part 4, we see how the 'Enterprising Mind-Set' and 'Design Habit of Mind' can accelerate the institution's transformation into an Entrepreneurial University. Part 5 introduces a learning model called TIDE -- Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship -- that allows students to design interdisciplinary majors such as Dance Entrepreneurship, Meteorological Innovation, History Business, Graphics Enterprises, and so forth. Part 6, still to be written at this date, outlines that trials and triumphs of PSU's bold experiment in Integrated Clusters Pedagogy.

A previous version of this article was originally presented at the 10th International Conference on Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Small Business (IICIES 2018), Wellington, New Zealand, December 10–11, 2018. In New Zealand English. Author: Howard H. Frederick, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Innovation & Entrepreneurship Cluster, Plymouth State University, New Hampshire, USA.

Abstract

Purpose—The purpose is to discuss the implementation of a design-driven ‘enterprise education’ program within two contexts: (1) a novel learning model emphasising innovation and entrepreneurship within an American regional comprehensive university; (2) a novel learning structure eliminating departments, school, and colleges in favour of a cross-disciplinary approach—in favour of an Integrated Cluster model.

Methodology/approach—The paper describes a novel entrepreneurship education learning model called Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship (TIDE). This singular case study reviews best practices in entrepreneurship education and proposes a course of study specific to an Integrated Cluster learning model. It focuses on the history and context of the case institution and concludes with a discussion of the problematics of implementing such a programme.

Findings—Design-based entrepreneurship education is used widely to promote creativity-and innovation-driven regional economic development. We profile the evolution of Plymouth State University, which has broken down academic silos by reorganizing the curriculum around cross-disciplinary Integrated Clusters. This is a case analysis of how an American regional comprehensive university can advance a new Learning Model that diffuses the tension between departments while advancing an innovation and entrepreneurship agenda.

Keywords—Entrepreneurship education, design-driven pedagogy, transformative innovation, regional comprehensive university, land-grant university, start-up, integrated clusters, educational philosophy, practice-based approach.

Plymouth State University Institutional Context

Here, we recount the institutional history of Plymouth State University and outline its innovative and novel learning model.

Plymouth State University, New Hampshire
Plymouth State University, New Hampshire, USA

This story is similar to other case analyses across the world that have examined the implementation design-based entrepreneurship education.[1] The present author finds himself helping to build a design-based entrepreneurship education programme at Plymouth State University, an American state university in New Hampshire. Located in the Boston metropolitan area, Plymouth State University started as a teachers college, became a training ground for agriculture, teaching, business, and industry. PSU is now a regional comprehensive university (RCU), what some call a ‘people’s university’ in recognition of its mission to give lower-and middle-income students access to higher education, not to mention to support regional economies and civic and cultural life. About 430 regional comprehensive universities are spread across U.S. states and territories. Forty per cent of them are historically black.[2]

Regional comprehensive universities play important roles in injecting ‘high impact practices’ into the regional economy. They lower the barriers to admission to a higher education. They prize teaching and student-centered projects over research. They enroll the largest proportion of underrepresented—including veterans, adult learners, ethnic minorities, first-generation students, and immigrants. Regional comprehensive universities buoy area economies and respond to regional workforce needs. RCU’s confer 30% of business degrees, 26% of computer and information sciences degrees, 31% of foreign languages degrees, and 27% of mathematics degrees. Regional universities also act as incubators where entrepreneurs and business leaders can receive support and faculty expertise. ‘RCU Curriculum Transformation’ studies are emerging.[3]

In terms of PSU’s institutional context, at times, such universities are sometimes unfairly belittled as an “undistinguished middle child” of higher education. RCU’s have sought during the last twenty years a way out of that characterization. The wrong ‘solution’ was chosen: to elevate research standards or imitate elite institutions. A better solution would be to dedicate the mission to regional economic improvement. One solution would be for New Hampshire’s General Court (Legislature) to enhance support, so PSU can continue to pursue its distinctive missions of enlarging college access and serving the economic and civic needs of surrounding regions.[4]

In historical terms, PSU was founded in 1871 under the Morrill Act (1862) signed by President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. The Morrill Act gave 30,000 acres of Federal land within each Congressional district, whose proceeds could be used to fund public colleges focused on ‘agriculture and the mechanical arts’.[5] As part of the University System of New Hampshire (USNH), PSU is also part of the hundred-plus land-grant universities network, whose mission originally was—within the context of the liberal arts—to teach practical engineering, agriculture, and science and to accelerate the rise of America’s nineteenth-century ‘Industrial Revolution’.[6] These institutions generated the transformative innovations needed to propel America’s emergence as economic world leader by 1900.

Plymouth State University serves New Hampshire and the New England region (USA). In AY2018, PSU enrolled 4,100 undergraduates and 750 graduate students in undergraduate, masters, and doctoral programmes. Forty-three per cent of the student body is first-generation students and 39% of students are low income.

Six New England states

Since 2015, structural problems in the US economy have seen PSU facing many challenges. At 43 years, New Hampshire has the second highest median age (nationally it is 38). The 18–64 workforce is abandoning the state. Meanwhile, New Hampshire has a very low unemployment rate. Expanding economic productivity, or even keeping it steady, appears difficult without an influx of young blood. New Hampshire is running out of teenagers. The University’s biggest problems are declining enrolments, rising tuition, and dwindling youth population. Student debt has soared, the result of loans to cover the difference. Devastating also is the fact that New Hampshire higher education has experienced years of cuts and flat funding, and the overall funding remains lowest per capita in the country, roughly equal to pre-Recession levels.[7]

PSU’s Integrated Clusters learning model

It was at this point in 2015 that Donald L. Birx became the 15th president of Plymouth State University. His vision was to restructure the university to become more innovative and entrepreneurial around Integrated Cross-Disciplinary Clusters:

‘We truly are creating a 21st Century University built around the key principles of exploration and discovery and innovation and entrepreneurship.’[8]

With a background in complex systems and artificial intelligence, Birx had had experience with clusters at the University of Houston, where he served as vice president for research. ‘Clusters allow a regional comprehensive university to be first class nationally in education and research in the interdisciplinary areas in which the university and community have unique strengths’, Birx wrote.[9]

By 2016, the University launched an audacious experiment—one where no other college or university has dared to go—to implement university-wide Learning Model based around innovation and entrepreneurship.[10]

Biting first the bitter pill, the process saw redundancies, buyouts, and a ten-per cent cut in employees.[11] A University Review and Strategic Allocation process (URSA) was followed by a University Re-invention Initiative (URI)[12]. Bearing in mind that smaller programs can play a key role in growing clusters, the process nonetheless deleted twenty undergraduate programs. Together with graduate program deletions, this represented a twenty-three per cent reduction in credit-bearing programmes.[13]

Especially daring was what happened next.

President Birx’ illustration of the Clusters Approach

Plymouth State University announced organisational changes that abolished all academic departments, schools, colleges, deans and chairs in favour of an academic cluster model composed of seven interdisciplinary Integrated Clusters. Clusters are defined as a trans-departmental units of faculty, staff and students ‘who come together with the intention to engage in collaborative, interdisciplinary work that transcends or takes advantage of individual disciplines’.[14] Plymouth State University is the only higher education institution in the United States that is ‘clusterising’ its curriculum.

Academic disciplines at PSU are no longer organisationally locked behind silos with minimal interaction across disciplines. Membership in any given cluster may change from semester to semester as faculty follow their interests. Faculty may choose to actively participate in multiple clusters. Clusters focus on working together and with community partners to engage students and faculty in addressing solutions for the community, region, state, and beyond. PSU’s Integrated Clusters include:

What does that mean in terms of curriculum?

Students can still choose a traditional major, such as biology, but rather than being in a ‘biology department’, that major now falls within the ‘Exploration and Discovery’ cluster, which contains the former departments of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Environmental Biology, Information Technology, Interdisciplinary Studies, Mathematics, Meteorology, and Psychology.

An example of synergies that this new learning model has created is in the Arts & Technology cluster. The Plymouth region is a very strong arts and theatre area. Equally, technology is a powerful player since the technology hub Boston is within driving distance. The novel idea in this cluster was that the Arts can complement Technology. Both are using new product design, manufacturing, entertainment, modelling and training. Together, arts and technology comprise the ‘STEAM disciplines’—science, technology, engineering, math—and “A” for “arts”.[15] Advocates point to research showing how the STEAM approach enriches engineering education. For example, aeronautic engineers improve their practice by learning how to play a musical instrument.[16]

In the PSU Integrated Clusters Learning Model, clusters do overlap, but the ‘Innovation & Entrepreneurship’ (I&E) cluster overlaps all clusters (see Figure), meaning all students might be exposed to it.[17] The underlying motivation of the new learning model is that all students—be they in art or zoology—can graduate with the ability to understand how to develop and implement entrepreneurial and innovative ideas, no matter what their discipline.[18]


Innovation & Entrepreneurship overlaps other clusters

To launch PSU’s new learning model, faculty developed four tools to accelerate the adoption of this new learning model. Together, these tools provide a pathway for students from launch through implementation of a cluster-based educational enterprise. The tools are:

  • First-Year Seminar experience introduces students to cluster learning focussed on a challenge question (‘wicked’ or ‘unscripted’ problems), carries out a team-based interdisciplinary project, explores learning and research methodologies, and relates how the cluster model works.
  • Open Labs combine seemingly divergent strands of study by placing students in team project learning with external community and business leaders to create innovations and new discoveries.
  • ‘Themed’ General Education. Previously students simply picked from a list. Now these courses span clusters and connect at the end through a Senior Capstone project.
  • In their third or fourth year, students take an Integrated Capstone Experience that bookends the First-Year Seminar and integrates the depth and breadth of learning over the last four years.[19]

So far, so good, one would say. A strong start of this collective initiative of all faculty and staff at the University. But recalling PSU’s poet laureate Robert Frost would say:

‘Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—I took the one less traveled by, and that has made all the difference.’

What we know about entrepreneurship education

In this case study, PSU’s ‘predicament’ is an opportunity to become a more enterprising institution. Plymouth State University aims to build an ‘Entrepreneurial University’, a concept driven primarily by Burton R. Clark, the great sociologist of higher education, and Henry Etzkowitz, a leading scholar in innovation studies.[20] An entrepreneurial university (with multiple missions for teaching, research, and economic and social development) can push a university like PSU in the continued progress of American ingenuity.[21]

Entrepreneurial universities have acquired the status of a key concept for smart regions. This is due to their role in harnessing education, research, and engagement for beneficial. An entrepreneurial university is one that contributes and provides leadership in creating entrepreneurial thinking, actions, institutions and capital of its students, staff, and faculty.[22]

What do we know about entrepreneurship education? Best practice now comes from global contemporary and historic examples. Universities can and do build entrepreneurial ecosystems based on an ‘enterprising mindset’ learning model.

The spread of entrepreneurship education as a learning model.

Teaching entrepreneurship is not new—it was well underway by the early 1980s.[23] From the beginning, there was considerable consensus that entrepreneurshipwas distinguishable from management education,and that studying it can positively influence entrepreneurial attributes.[24] By the end of the millennium, there was a ranking of entrepreneurship schools.[25] Now, entrepreneurship education has spread widely around the world, has diversified its teaching approaches, is proud of a vigorous research literature, and has become an academic discipline. Baptista and Naia’s literature review shows that theoretical contributions about entrepreneurship education have been increasing and improving. [26]

One of this field’s paradoxes is that entrepreneurship is offered predominantly only in business schools, even though it does not really belong there. If entrepreneurship is siloed (segregated) in the business faculty, then it cannot reach out to the broad array of disciplines, with potentially more enterprising potential.

Nonetheless, entrepreneurship education is now expanding into arts, sciences, design, engineering, and most any subject. Entrepreneurship education is becoming university-wide, drawing on cross-disciplinary programmes with diverse missions, rather than existing simply as a subspecialty in business programmes.[27]

What’s more, there is a correlation between entrepreneurship and education. Exposure to entrepreneurship education leads to higher levels of self-efficacy, which leads to entrepreneurial intent. Entrepreneurs are more likely to have received training and education than the rest of the working-age population.

Entrepreneurship education is effective for business students and STEM students. More than one-third of business majors want to start a business, but one-sixth of non-business students also want to strike out on their own. [28] Business students generally have the least enterprising ideas compared to students in arts, science, and elsewhere.

Behaviourally, it also makes sense. Studies show a positive effect of entrepreneurship education on attitudes and perceived behavioural control. It significantly affects student attitudes towards entrepreneurial activity.[29] Lackeus suggests that it triggers emotional events in students, which in turn develop entrepreneurial competencies. For example, requiring a student to create a venture or create value for someone leads to frequent open lab interaction, a sense of relevancy and meaning (as well as numerous incidents of frustration, anger and despair). These activities lead to the development of competencies such as tolerance of ambiguity, increased persistence, increased self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial passion.[30]

Starting an (ad)venture of any type—be it social, business, community, or environmental—requires an enterprising mind-set, lots of passion, and deep knowledge. Entrepreneurs reach into their hearts and minds to find that special idea or innovation that excites them. When they find it, nothing can stop this ‘force of nature’. ‘I can do this’, they say to themselves. ‘I can design a solution to their pain or problem.’

People typically ask two questions of entrepreneurship educators:

  • Does an entrepreneur really need teaching? The answer is actually mixed. True, there are many entrepreneurs (maybe as high as 10–15 per cent in the USA) who drop out of school. They lack the patience to learn (nor did their teachers have patience with them). Other research shows that entrepreneurs have is a higher rate of ADHD. They simply found it difficult to focus and complete their schoolwork. Even illiterate and dyslexic entrepreneurs succeed (by learning visually and relying on others). Then there are teenage non-conformists. Modest rule-breaking never hurt an entrepreneur! Bottom line is that education and entrepreneurship are highly correlated—the more education you have, the more likely you will intend to exploit opportunities. [31]
  • Yes, but can you learn to be an entrepreneur? Again, yes and no. You most definitely can learn it if someone helps you discover that spark and passion within yourself. What good teachers do is create a world where students can experiment/experience being an entrepreneur and cultivating a creative, confident habit of mind using the scientific method to identify and exploit opportunities. In those precious minutes together with learners, entrepreneurship educators supply just-in-time content that is both enabling and experiential, where you are challenged by the real problems, have access to tools and techniques to work through those problems, and, ultimately, learn the theory, process and practice of being innovative and enterprising. [32]

Entrepreneurship education is actually a philosophy of life. Nobel Prize winner in Economics Amartya Sen once said: ‘The highest expression of freedom is the ability to choose what kind of life one wants to lead. Enterprising activity is the objective and the primary means of enhancing human freedom. The usefulness of ‘value creation’ lies in the things that it allows us to do—the substantive freedoms it helps us to achieve.[33]

PSU’s Entrepreneurship Ecosystem

To build an entrepreneurial university, certain ecosystem components should be in place. To use academic language, institutions must build and improve their University-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem(U-BEE), those interdependent actors and factors around a university that facilitate productive entrepreneurship.[34] These components increase the ‘creative capital’ in the regional economy, and mobilise and transfer the enterprising mind-set to students and faculty throughout the University.[35] An especially important component is women entrepreneurs’ and disadvantaged entrepreneurs’ participation, as those vary significantly from those of men.[36]

What are the components of PSU's Entrepreneurial Ecosystem?

Here are these validated components mapped onto PSU in 2019:

Existing

Alignment of institutional objectives

Ongoing curriculum innovation

Innovation & Entrepreneurship Cluster

Business incubator

Courses in entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship student club

Networking events for entrepreneurs

Maker spaces where entrepreneurs can interact

Participation of the community and the business community

Needed

Strategic vision statement on the entrepreneurial university

Centre for Enterprise Education / Teaching Institute

Entrepreneurship major, minor or certificate

Gender imbalance plan

Entrepreneurship courses for non-business majors

Entrepreneurship floor in dorm

Entrepreneurship research activities

Student venture investment fund

Enterprising Mind-Set and Design Habit of Mind

In this section, we discuss the two ways of knowing that are central to any Innovation & Entrepreneurship learning model.  They are mind-set and design. 

The enterprising mind-set

The enterprising mind-set is a habit of mind based on perception, cognition and mental process and used across the widest range of human activities to frame ill-defined yet complex problems and to solve them through products, ventures, services, business models. Another word for solutions is innovation.[37]

The enterprising mind-set  plays a significant role in human evolution. Like their biological analogues, ‘entrepreneur-organisms’ develop and retain information useful to survival and progress. Risk-tolerant, growth-promoting traits generate an evolutionary advantage and their increased occurrence in the gene pool accelerated the pace of progress. However, risk-tolerant traits compete with inherited risk-averse traits, which equally can gain evolutionary advantage.[38]

This may all sound a bit Darwinian. But Joseph Schumpeter, the father of entrepreneurship theory, developed a theory of evolutionary entrepreneurship. To him, the material world evolves perpetually as entrepreneurs destroy equilibrium and introduce innovations.[39]  Evolutionary entrepreneurship is the spirit of creativity and inventiveness, of curiosity and daring, of calculated risk against gain.

PSU’s Innovation & Entrepreneurship Cluster’s mission statement says: ‘By promoting the enterprising habit of mind, we design solutions to the widest range of social, educational, commercial, and environmental problems.  We encourage our students to take risks, learn from failures, see opportunity in problems and act. 

We often use the two expressions ‘habit of mind’ and ‘mind-set’ interchangeably.  A habit of mind is that critical attribute of intelligent human beings that seeks information but also knows how to act on it. It is a ‘disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known’. A mind-set has a more collective connotation.  Margolis likens this to Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions in which one mind-set supplants another. As far as Habits of Mind go, Art Costa’s productiveness greatly accelerated por thinking and research in mind-set theory, but he identified only sixteen habits of mind.[40] 

Many people misconstrue the word ‘enterprise’. Rather than being some firm or company, today the word enterprise (or enterprising) is used as an ‘attitude to life, an attitude of exploring, of developing, of leading and of taking initiatives’.[41] It is no accident that the Star Trek crew flew the ‘Starship Enterprise’ using such entrepreneurial traits as: 

The crew of the Starship Enterprise is the quintessential entrepreneurial team.

‘Boldly go where no [one] has gone before’.

‘Space… the final frontier’

‘To explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations’.

Enterprise—as in an ‘enterprising personality’—is the process of identifying, developing and bringing a vision to life, be it an innovative idea or simply a better way of doing something, in all fields of human endeavour. Think of how many self-employed professions there are—artists, photographers, musicians, designers, writers, financial advisors, analysts and interior designers. Beyond this, think of the creative and innovative people in arts, civil society, not-for-profits, community trusts and social enterprises.  From artist to zoologist, some people have the enterprising mentality.

In the literature, this is known as ‘Enterprise Education’.[42] Enterprise Education is defined as the ‘process of developing students in a manner that provides them with an enhanced capacity to generate ideas, and the behaviours, attributes, and competencies to make them happen.’  An enterprising mindset is marked by imagination, initiative and readiness to undertake new endeavours; by a confident focus on a particular opportunity and by the ability to quickly act – all the while experimenting how to shape the opportunity within an social enterprise or business model.

From the perspective of trait theory, the behaviours of taking initiatives, seeking opportunities, taking responsibility, taking risks beyond security, and having the tenacity to push an idea through to reality combine into a special perspective that permeates entrepreneurs from all walks of life.[43]

A PSU study within the I&E cluster outlined a tentative list of competencies of an enterprising mind-set important for students at the university:

  • Self-efficacy—‘I can do this, and I can make a difference.’
  • Collaboration—‘I know how to build a team and share roles.’Identify opportunities—‘I can spot and validate problems and solutions.’
  • Empathy—‘I can stand in the shoes of another and see their perspective.’
  • Design perspective—‘I am a master of human-cecompetencntred design.’
  • Communication—‘I can tell a compelling story about an opportunity.’
  • Representation—‘I can build what I can imagine and get feedback from others.’ [44]
Adapted from Withell, A. (2016). Conceptualising, evaluating and enhancing a design thinking curriculum using a critical realist perspective (Thesis). Auckland University of Technology, 108. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306118193_Conceptualising_Evaluating_and_Enhancing_a_Design_Thinking_Curriculum_Using_a_Critical_Realist_Perspective; see also Lynda.com Imboden, E. (n.d.). The role of design in entrepreneurship. https://www.lynda.com/Business-Skills-tutorials/role-design-entrepreneurship/495768/567467–4.html Margolis, H. (1993). Paradigms and Barriers: How Habits of Mind Govern Scientific Beliefs. University of Chicago Press. http://bit.ly/2TlRa0m; Costa, A. (n.d.). The Art Costa Centre For Thinking. Retrieved November 19, 2018, from https://artcostacentre.com/html/habits.htm; Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2000a). Activating & Engaging Habits of Mind. A Developmental Series, Book 2. 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The design of business: Why design thinking is the next competitive advantage. Harvard Business Press; Martin, R. L., Christensen, K., & Martin, R. L. (Eds.). (2013). The design of business. In Rotman on design: The best on design thinking from Rotman magazine (pp. 15–19). University of Toronto Press. Brown, T. J., & Kuratko, D. F. (2015). The impact of design and innovation on the future of education. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(2), 147–151. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000010; Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. Design Issues, 8(2), 5–21. https://doi.org/10.2307/1511637; Buchanan, R. (2001). Design Research and the New Learning. Design Issues, 17(4), 3–23. https://doi.org/10.1162/07479360152681056; Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., Wong, B., & Hong, H.-Y. (2015). Design Thinking and Education. In J. H. L. Koh, C. S. Chai, B. Wong, & H.-Y. Hong (Eds.), Design Thinking for Education: Conceptions and Applications in Teaching and Learning (pp. 1–15). Singapore: Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978–981–287–444–3_1; Marber, P., & Araya, D. (2017). The Evolution of Liberal Arts in the Global Age. Taylor & Francis. http://bit.ly/2RbzDGG ; Miller. (2017). Is “design thinking” the new liberal arts? In P. Marber & P. N. Miller (Eds.), The Evolution of Liberal Arts in the Global Age. Routledge.; Shrand, T. (2016). Design Thinking as a Strategy for Consensus in General Education Reform. In Association of American Colleges & Universities. https://www.aacu.org/peerreview/2016/summer/Schrand; Virtual, M. (2014). Design Thinking and the Liberal Arts: a framework for re-imagining a liberal arts education. https://www.academia.edu/25787095/Design_Thinking_and_the_Liberal_Arts_a_framework_for_re-imagining_a_liberal_arts_education; Walsh-Covarrubias, J. B. (2010). Creating the Entrepreneurial University to Support Liberal Education (review). The Journal of General Education, 59(2), 141–142. https://doi.org/10.1353/jge.2010.0008; West, G. P., III, Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., & Gustafson, J. (Eds.). (2009). Entrepreneurship as a Liberal Art. In Handbook of University-wide Entrepreneurship Education. Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub. https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/handbook-of-university-wide-entrepreneurship-education; Wladawsky-Berger, I. (2016, November 4). Is Design Thinking the New Liberal Arts? Retrieved November 24, 2018, from https://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2016/11/04/is-design-thinking-the-new-liberal-arts/; Fuller, R. B. (1963). A comprehensive anticipatory design science. In No more secondhand god: And other writings (pp. 75–104). Southern Illinois University Press; Fuller, R. B. (n.d.). Eight strategies for comprehensive anticipatory design science. The Buckminster Fuller Institute. https://www.bfi.org/design-science/primer/eight-strategies-comprehensive-anticipatory-design-science; Fuller, R. B. (1969). Operating manual for spaceship earth. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. http://designsciencelab.com/resources/OperatingManual_BF.pdf; Simon, H. A. (1969). The sciences of the artificial. MIT press. https://monoskop.org/images/9/9c/Simon_Herbert_A_The_Sciences_of_the_Artificial_3rd_ed.pdf. Cross, N. (1982). Designerly ways of knowing. Design Studies, 3, 221–7. See also Cross, N. (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. Springer. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/1–84628–301–9_1.pdf; Cross, N. (2001). Designerly ways of knowing: Design discipline versus design science. Design Issues, 17(3), 49–55; Cross, N. (2007). From a design science to a design discipline: Understanding designerly ways of knowing and thinking. Design Research Now, 41–54; Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–69; Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked problems in design thinking. Design Issues, 8, 5–21. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1511637 . Brown, T. (2008, June 1). Design thinking. https://hbr.org/2008/06/design-thinking; Brown, T. (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. New York: HarperBusiness; Chen, S., & Venkatesh, A. (2013). An investigation of how design-oriented organisations implement design thinking. Journal of Marketing Management, 29, 1680–700; Martin, R. L. (2009). The design of business: Why design thinking is the next competitive advantage. Harvard Business Press; Martin, R. L., Christensen, K., & Martin, R. L. (Eds.). (2013). The design of business. In Rotman on design: The best on design thinking from Rotman magazine (pp. 15–19). University of Toronto Press.
PSU Vision of the Enterprising Mind-set

Ultimately, the success of a learning model based around Innovation & Entrepreneurship depends on whether student (and staff) develop and practice an ‘enterprising mind-set’ to creating ventures and (ad)ventures.  The learning model simply provides interventions that generate supporting behaviours, attributes and competencies that are likely to have a significant impact on the employability of students.  The most widely used definition of employability is ‘a set of achievements - skills, understandings and personal attributes - that make individuals more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations’, which in turn benefits themselves, the workforce, the community and the economy.[45]

A close up of a map Description automatically generated
Discovering synergies between entrepreneurship and employability

Habits of mind at PSU

Within the context of PSU learners, LeBlanc et al. (2017) identified four mind-sets as learning outcomes of a new PSU General Education program that would be helpful to a student long after graduation.[46]  They were: 

  • Self-efficacy—‘I can do this, and I can make a difference.’
  • Collaboration—‘I know how to build a team and share roles.’
  • Identify opportunities—‘I can spot and validate problems and solutions.’
  • Empathy—‘I can stand in the shoes of another and see their perspective.’
  • Design perspective—‘I am a master of human-cecompetencntred design.’
  • Communication—‘I can tell a compelling story about an opportunity.’ [47]

These four chosen habits of mind at PSU are in some cases amalgams of other schemas but particularly Art Costa’s ‘16 Habits of Mind’[48].  For example, Purposeful Communication is similar to Costa’s ‘Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and Precision’; and Self-regulated Learning resembles ‘Remaining Open to Continuous Learning’. 

But there are more habits of mind than Costa conceived.   Like PSU, other researchers have combined them variously:[49]

  • Patterning Habit of Mind teaches that what we call chaos is just patterns we haven’t recognized, that lead to opportunities
  • Studio Habit of Mind empowers artists to produce gainfully.
  • Engineering Habit of Mind addresses solutions to problems or improvements to current technologies or ways of doing things.
  • Growth Habit of Mind (nothing to do with Business) means anyone can change with enough work
  • Graduate Student Habit of Mind is a mysterious guild secret and sorcery (Graff, 2003, 191).
  • American University claims there are five distinct habits of mind:  Creative-Aesthetic Inquiry, Cultural Inquiry, Ethical Reasoning, Natural-Scientific Inquiry, and Socio-Historical Inquiry. 

Designerly ‘ways of knowing’ – the design mind-set

Design thinking is the approach to innovation that marries the core principles of design with best customer- or stakeholder-centric practice. Design thinking is the ultimate form of creative enterprise because it uses creativity and imagination to achieve breakthrough innovations that solve real problems and create value for actual people.[50]  When students should be exposed to Enterprise & Design, it enhances their understanding of everything and accelerates their desire to be gainful.[51] 

What unites all great design thinkers is what famous American architect, systems theorist, designer, and inventor Buckminster Fuller called ‘anticipatory design science’, which he defined as human practice that would align men and women to the conscious design of our total environment, making Earth’s finite resources meet the needs of humanity without disrupting the ecological processes of the planet. What nobler cause than to use design and enterprise combined. Nobel laureate Herbert Simon agreed: ‘To design is to devise courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones’.[52] 

Design thinking process model © Howard Frederick

Since the early 1980s, design has been considered one of three ‘cultures of knowing’ in general education. The first two of course are science (as in physics or chemistry but also the social sciences) and the humanities (as in arts and history). 

Does not design develop help students develop abilities in solving real-world, ill-defined problems?  This has now become a creed: ‘Design Thinking is the new Liberal Arts.’ Design thinking helps overcome the false dichotomy between the humanities and science because it prepares students for the active creation of the new realities that science and the humanities have imagined as possible. But today, the study of design can equally tackle intractable human concerns just a forcefully as science and humanities.

Here is how design differs from science and humanities:

  • Phenomenon being studied.  While science studies the natural world, and humanities the realm of human experience, design’s major focus is the artificial, material world that surrounds us.
  • Methods of enquiry. Science probes the natural world using controlled experiments, classification, and analysis. Humanities probes the human experience using criticism, evaluation, analogy, metaphor, and comparison. Design uses modelling, pattern-formation, synthesis, abductive logic, and convergent thinking to analyse and change the material world immediately surrounding us.
  • Ontological beliefs and values. For the sciences, they are objectivity, rationality, neutrality, and a concern for ‘truth’. For the humanities the central values are subjectivity, imagination, commitment, and a concern for ‘justice’. Design employs practicality, ingenuity, empathy, and a concern for ‘appropriateness’. [53]

Design thinking uses creativity and imagination to achieve breakthrough innovations that solve real problems and create value for actual people.[54] It crosses disciplines and can be considered part of general higher education. Like science and the humanities, design requires and develops unique innate abilities in solving real-world, ill-defined problems and requires unique forms of cognitive development.

A Rising TIDE Lifts All Boats

In this section, we bring together all the strands of the foregoing on entrepreneurship, enterprising mind-set, and habits of mind into a pedagogy that appeals to any discipline, from art to zoology.

During 2016-2017, staff in Plymouth State University’s Innovation & Entrepreneurship Cluster identified an opportunity to develop a Program in

Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship (TIDE).

PSU’s new TIDE program instils entrepreneurial will and enterprising mind-set into students of all majors. Essentially, TIDE’s model is Learning-through-creating-value-for-others.[55] It teaches the needed design skills and entrepreneurial tools to create and grow ventures of any kind – art, social, business, and environmental ventures.[56]

The aphorism ‘a rising tide lifts all boats’ means that all craft (programs, disciplines) at Plymouth State University from art to women’s students can rise when the University launches an inter-disciplinary TIDE program. How do we ‘raise PSU’s tide’ and ‘lift’ all the ‘boats’ around us?  We create change. We as educators do so by being the rising tide lifting all within it.[57]

TIDE aligns with the mission statement of the Innovation & Entrepreneurship Cluster: ‘By promoting the enterprising habit of mind, we design solutions to the widest range of social, educational, commercial, and environmental problems.’

Every discipline at Plymouth State University has enterprising students and faculty seeking to transform, innovate, design, and undertake.  TIDE provides ways for all of PSU’s interdisciplinary clusters to design and start new ventures and adventures.  

At PSU, this type of learning model would appeal to students whose persona we consider to be ‘Confidents’ and ‘Strivers’, those who are ambitious, organized and social; and who have a personal commitment to succeed.[58]  Here are some examples of interdisciplinary crossover that would appeal to those student profiles:

What is ‘Transformative Innovation’?

[Graphic]

  • Sustaining innovation props up and temporarily fixes systems and processes that are failing, but it does little for the longer term advancement.
  • Disruptive innovation shakes things up but is eventually mainstreamed to help sustain existing systems.
  • Only transformative innovation can deliver a fundamental shift towards new patterns of viability in tune with our aspirations for the future. TI accelerates a transformational effect on business, society, culture, and the natural environment.
Another metaphor of Transformative Innovation

Parsing TIDE’s name, we have first ‘transformative innovation’ (TI), the most advanced form of innovation. 

Examples of transformative innovations are numerous:  the plough, welfare state, radar, plastic, department store, infant formula, contraceptive pill, antibiotics, to mention a few.[59]

Enterprising colleagues and students throughout PSU—whatever their discipline—find common ground in designing transformative innovations and in launching life-changing ventures of all types.[60] Beyond the campus, transformative innovation requires multi-actors such as firms, suppliers, universities and knowledge institutes, government, public interest groups and users.[61] A good example of TI are the Sustainable Development Goals published in 2015.[62] These Goals need far-reaching changes in technology and will give rise to entirely new sectors.

Throughout the world, there is enough youthful entrepreneurial energy to build a world that overcomes the challenges that we face. The term ‘transformative’ describes those changes in the economy, environment, social welfare—indeed entire systems on Earth.[63]

What is ‘Design-based Entrepreneurship’?

The second part of the TIDE brand is DE. ‘Design-based Entrepreneurship’ is a pedagogical approach using project-based exercises that turn user-centred problems into opportunities.[64] DE uses human-centred design optimised to exploit new opportunities within resource-constrained and uncertain contexts. ‘Through design we launch better start-ups. Through entrepreneurship we become better designers’.[65]

The roots of design-based entrepreneurship theory go back to two streams of literature: the design literature, dating back to the 1960s; and entrepreneurship theory literature, starting around the turn of the millennium.[66]  Combining the two approaches, we now speak of ‘designerly ways of venturing’ in the material world of artefacts using pattern formation, synthesis and modelling. Design entrepreneurs value practicality, ingenuity, empathy and appropriateness.[67] The designerly mind-set is an extension of the enterprising mind-set.

Design thinking requires empathy. Empathy means the ability to put yourself into your customer’s/client’s/stakeholder’s shoes to understand problems from their perspective, to uncover their pains and problems (including some pains they didn’t even know they had), and to generate unexpected solutions (including ones that they had not thought of). ‘Empathic’ means having a sensitivity to other people’s pains and emotions. 

In terms of logic, design is quite distinct from science and humanities in its approach to knowledge.  Design thinking uses modelling, pattern-formation, synthesis, abductive logic, and convergent thinking to analyse and change the material world immediately surrounding us.  New ventures come into being not by traditional logic (deduction or induction) but through ‘logical leaps of the mind’, known as abductive logic. This logic is appropriate when you are confronted with an incomplete set of observations and you have to make hypotheses using the best information available. Then you test your hunches until you have the likeliest possible explanation for the group of observations. Cross calls this ‘design intelligence’.[68]

Five TIDE Courses – Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship

I&E’s Curriculum and Instruction Committee used its expert access to entrepreneurship education research and teaching to design five courses comprising a TIDE degree.  At PSU, these five required courses could be a major within business, an IDS major (Interdisciplinary Studies), a Cluster Major or a campus-wide minor.  These are the five key pillars of knowledge and expertise that comprise a TIDE graduate: (Syllabi available upon request.)

Foundations of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

TIDE course Foundations of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Diverse pathways lead to becoming a social, business, or environmental entrepreneur. Foundational knowledge of entrepreneurship and innovation, creation of new ventures, and the history and evolution of entrepreneurship help students find their path to entrepreneurship. Surveying principles, theories, and practice of entrepreneurship, students build understanding of the key tasks, skills, and attitudes to become a successful entrepreneur.

Design Thinking & Venture Start-up

TIDE Course Design Thinking & Venture Start-up

Design thinking applies creativity to come up with novel solutions to tough problems. Students learn to identify opportunities and practice design thinking to construct ‘minimum viable products.’ Venture start-up follows when design thinking leads to marketable solutions. Students learn to build and validate a value proposition, devise a business model, and employ storytelling to pitch their solutions to funders.

Social Entrepreneurship

TIDE course Social Entrepreneurship

Working in teams, students practice entrepreneurial skills to create, organize, and manage a project with social impact, either globally or locally. The overall goal is to take entrepreneurial action to improve quality of life and economic well-being through service organizations in fields as diverse as the environment, animal rights, health, and community building.

Entrepreneurial Growth & Strategy

TIDE course Social Entrepreneurship

Students learn how to deal with growth challenges in  settings using analytical skills, techniques, and decision-making tools. Using simulation and case analysis, participants learn how to face new issues and decisions as they unfold over the life-cycle of a company/product. Students write a ‘Lean Business Plan’ and analyse it from both the entrepreneur and investor perspectives.

Capstone: Lean Incubation and Business Launch

Tide course Lean Incubation and Business Launch

Students build and validate a repeatable and scalable business model based on transformative innovation and value creation using especially previous knowledge in design, marketing, and financial feasibility. Students are expected to write a ‘bankable’ lean business plan, and initiate the process of incubation based on the validation of the model in real market.

TIDE learning and assessment

Entrepreneurship educators do not necessarily come from the business disciplines; they can come from any discipline. These are the teachers who have repeatedly helped students solve their ‘wicked’ problems. TIDE uses new and different formative and summative approaches to assessment. In designing and delivering assessment, enterprise educators generally use exercises to solve what entrepreneurs call ‘pains’. Look around you and imagine how many things are solving your pains and frustrations. Design reduces pain. Design satisfies need. Design creates value. Design changes behaviour.   Teachers generally try to increase the experiential anxiety as these exercises proceed over time.[69]

In TIDE, learners from all disciplines build teams to carry out opportunity recognition and evaluation exercises. Teams prepare a value proposition, validation, pretotyping, business modelling, and story-telling. During the course, students are accompanied by advisers (faculty and community), who do not actively influence the process but give feedback and suggestions to indirectly instruct.  Some other considerations include: 

At PSU, through the Open Labs, students are challenged to create value for others by asking ‘for whom should we create value today’? Teachers use a variety of canvasses to measure opportunity recognition, value proposition, validation, design of a minimal viable product, business modelling, and storytelling. These one-page simplify and facilitate teachers’ practice of progressive education, which they sometimes perceive as too complex to manage and too difficult and risky in terms of student assessment and potential neglect of important traditional education values.

Lean Business Model Canvas

Enrollment Impact

We expect TIDE to significantly increase PSU’s enrollment numbers through new majors, and increase in transfer students. We also expect TIDE will positively affect our retention rates. We will likely see an increase in double majoring, increasing the interdisciplinary development of our majors.  With the course offerings all at 4 credits, more high impact learning experiences are built into each course through open lab opportunities to connect with practitioners in the field, including alumni.  However, students should note that it does require completion of all four content area courses, and an internship.  We do expect that with the introduction of this major there will be a shift of students from other disciplines who are venturing, be it social, environmental, or business.  We have every expectation that enrollments will increasing over four years. We also expect to see an upward trend in students who are double-majoring.

We anticipate generating cohorts of enterprising students to launch their own ventures at PSU, be it social, business, or environmental.  We can anticipate that at graduation, about 20% of PSU TIDE  students will be running their own ventures, and this figure will grow with the years.  Our forward metrics include alumni-founded companies, new jobs created and retained.  We document  the number of start-ups and new products introduced.  We expect an increase in faculty research in the fields of innovation and design.  We also expect follow-on funding from government and private sources.  All of this will benefit the APEX Accelerator as well. 

Institutional Resources

Our existing faculty within the I&E cluster has the experience and capability of creating and delivering this new program. No additional faculty lines are expected to be required initially to implement our 2-year plan.  However, as enrolments increase over the next two-three years, we will need another full-time faculty to teach TIDE’s courses.  No new library resources are required.  No additional technology tools or infrastructure is needed to accommodate these curriculum changes. 

Research and experience show that entrepreneurship education funding has a return on investment.  This is done through promoting innovative mechanisms to leverage partnerships with corporations, NGOs, global institutions, and foundations, as well as with individuals. Robust and innovative funding sources such as venture and family capital, angel investors, and emergent crowd-funding markets facilitate access to capital.[70]  Gaining admission to the Babson Collaborative would open doors to PSU to funding in New England.  Governments throughout the world have invested significant resources to promote entrepreneurship education.  We look forward to fruitful collaborations with New Hampshire High Technology Council; Live Free and Start; Stay/Work/Play; Veteran Entrepreneurship, Self-Employment and Small Business Development; New Hampshire High Tech Council, nashuaHUB Business Incubator, Dartmouth Entrepreneurial Network (DEN), NH Small Business Development Center, New Hampshire Charitable Foundation; and others.  An alliance with Blue Zones ‘longevity hotspots’ helps transform communities into thriving places to live, work, eat, and play.Program Demand

Innovation challenges facing New Hampshire

TIDE and PSU can help solve challenges that New Hampshire faces today.[71]  Here are those challenges and possible innovations that TIDE can accelerate:

  • Demographic: More than half of NH is 40+ (behind only VT and ME).  The other half is leaving. >> Focus on new business models to innovate recreation, natural landscapes and cultural centers
  • Agriculture: Attrition in family farms. Shrinking growing seasons due to climate change >> High-tech, hyper-local, all-year permanent agriculture behind Prospect Hall.
  • Energy: Rising energy costs are reason top employers moving out >> Solar and wind technologies; small power facilities leading to new energy ventures
  • Education: Native enrollment at state schools is abysmal >> Create new VR-amplified Next Generation Learning; Integrated Clusters; competency-based education; technologies and distance learning
  • Advanced Manufacturing: Educate more generalist manufacture-entrepreneurs; we can repeat the “Kamen Effect”; open up new fields
  • Tourism/Culture: Changing habits of consumers, impacts of climate change >> three-season attractions; electric sports vehicles; fish and wildlife resources; theatre, music and galleries
  • Future Shock: Star, Work, Play; Cryptocurrency marketplace in NH is huge; Free State Project "Liberty in Our Lifetime"; driverless cars.

Validation by external stakeholders

In October 2017, the CoBA Board of Advisors discussed the change in the Core of Business Education and its impact on employers.  Unanimously, they agreed on 16 Success Factors that they seek.  Entrepreneurial cognition maps well to Success Factors identified by Board of Advisors.[72]  See Video ‘What skills, abilities and mind-sets do ourgraduates need when they enter the workforce? 

‘As an entrepreneur and graduate of Plymouth State University, I believe the TIDE program would be very beneficial for today's students. The motive of self-starting, motivating and directing yourself is crucial in today's business world - whether or not students choose to pursue a full entrepreneurial path following college, the skills learned in his program will give students an advantage in their field. The core principles of entrepreneurship can be applied to any field of business and I believe it's crucial for PSU Students to have a base understanding/development of entrepreneurial skills to thrive in today's quickly changing business frontier.’  Ryan Chadwick, Entrepreneur, PSU Business Advisory Board, Grey Lady Inc.

The proposed Bachelor of Science in Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship (TIDE) is in alignment with, and a fundamental enabler of, the University’s Vision Statement. The Statement has two key elements: 1.) transforming students through advanced practices and engaged learning; and, 2.) connecting with community and business partners for economic development, technological advances, healthier living, and cultural enrichment. The proposed program also aligns with the University’s Business Advisory Board’s depiction of key skills and knowledges needed for success in virtually every career path a student might choose.  An enterprising mindset and entrepreneurship are highly valued in all organizations, from sole proprietorships to global entities. PSU's entrepreneurial ecosystem (U-BEE) aligns with the broad, university-wide, approach PSU seems to be embarking on. Randy Christian, Intrapreneur, Member of Business Advisory Board, former Johnson & Johnson

Validation by global experts

‘As a leading scholar and builder in the entrepreneurship education ecosystem, Howard Frederick  has again designed a fantastic program in the Bachelor of Science in Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship (TIDE). The strong foundation combines a practical development and implementation of an entrepreneurial mindset with a strong conceptual analysis, which Dr. Frederick has used to create a program that reflect his depth of knowledge and experience in the entrepreneurship domain. Specifically, I highly endorse the content and pedagogical approach Dr. Frederick has demonstrated in the lesson plans and syllabi. These reflect best practices in our field, such as design thinking and lean methodologies, and will surely prepare PSU students for entering the post-college world!’ Dr Doan Winkel, John J. Kahl Sr. Chair in Entrepreneurship & Director of the Muldoon Center for Entrepreneurship, John Carroll University, Ohio USA[73]

‘Howard Frederick, without a doubt, a leading scholar in entrepreneurship education, carefully designs this program that provides an extraordinary breakthrough improving and elucidating our current conceptions of “traditional entrepreneurship higher education program”.  The Bachelor of Science in Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship (TIDE) provides a state-of-the-art approach not only based on a strong conceptual analysis but also, and more relevant, practical implementation of entrepreneurial mind-set for all the students that will undertake the unique experience to be part of TIDE. For University-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem, TIDE is a key component.’  Dr Jose Ernesto Amorós, National Director of Doctoral Programs at EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City (ranked No. 1 in Latin America).[74]

‘The proposed Bachelor of Science in Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship represents both contemporary thinking and practice in the domain of entrepreneurship education. As one on the world’s leading educators in our domain, I have no doubt Howard and his team with indeed enable students to become the sole proprietor of their destinies through supporting a process of calculated adventuring.’  Dr Colin Jones, Senior Lecturer in Entrepreneurship, Queensland University of Technology.[75]

As a highly respected academic colleague and Entrepreneur, Howard Frederick has been a trailblazer in Entrepreneurship education in New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, Europe and the US. It does not come as a surprise therefore that his proposed Bachelor of Science in Transformative Innovation & Design Entrepreneurship (TIDE) program has all the elements of a winning formula for Entrepreneurship in action at academic level. The program is both very comprehensive in theory and layout as well as highly practical in implementation and delivery and I have no doubt that Howard and his team make it into a big success.  Dr. Hermina Burnett, Adjunct Professor, Murdoch University School of Management and Governance; and Lecturing Fellow, University of Adelaide, both of South Australia.[76]

‘I thank you for allowing me the opportunity to endorse this course at Plymouth State University. I have perused the proposal documents, and happy to reflect on the significant and professional approach to the development of this entrepreneurship education program. I am of the professional opinion that the course (TIDE) aligns well with the strategic direction of the PSU Integrated Clusters (Arts, Health, Justice, Tourism, Entrepreneurship and Innovation). In particular, the mission and value, rationale and alignment to PSU mission and goals, COBA strategic plan and URI University Re-investment initiative fit appropriately and enhance an enterprising mindset, transformative innovation and design entrepreneurship approach.  The proposed student learning outcomes are well articulated through the introduction of 5 new subjects (from Foundations to Senior Capstone), and content, pedagogy and assurance of learning are demonstrated through detailed lesson plans and overviews. The transformational innovation and design entrepreneurship is certainly a novel approach to developing an enterprising mindset!  This programs reflects upon the experience and internationalisation of Professor Frederick's expertise in the entrepreneurship domain, certainly a reflection of best practice globally.  In conclusion, my congratulations on developing a well-rounded and complete Bachelors course in entrepreneurship.’   Dr Alex Maritz, Professor of Entrepreneurship, La Trobe University.[77]

‘The program presented is comprehensive yet appears sustainable in terms of the resources and modest number of new courses proposed.  The justification for extending on Plymouth State University’s existing entrepreneurship and innovation eco-system is well argued, in itself blending innovative learning approaches with well-established pedagogy for entrepreneurship education, focused particularly on developing students’ self-efficacy in the field.  I have personally known Professor Frederick since we first met in the late 1990s. For over a decade we collaborated successfully introducing postgraduate, undergraduate and support programmes in innovation-based entrepreneurship in New Zealand. He has continued his success with novel and effective programme introductions in Australia, Mexico, and the United States, whilst also producing a widely adopted international teaching text, now in its 5th edition.  I have every confidence in endorsing the program’s success and the team that Howard would recruit to achieve implementation. Dr Peter J Mellalieu, Industrial Associate Professor, Otago Polytechnic, Auckland International Campus.[78]

Comparability with other programs

TIDE’s content matches best practice globally.  TIDE’s design draws heavily on North America’s 14th leading school of innovation and entrepreneurship, Monterrey (Mexico) Institute of Technology (ITESM).[79]  Each semester, Tec’s 120 entrepreneurship professors teach the subject to 8,000 students on 31 campuses.  Thirty per cent of students graduate with a sales-generating business, and 68 per cent of alumni own a business within 25 years of graduation. Tec’s learning model also shows many other downstream benefits, such as alumni giving and loyalty, industry alignments, profitable incubators (including social incubators), and outstanding student recruitment.[80] 

Other colleges achieve similar metrics.  Babson College shows that taking two or more core entrepreneurship elective courses positively influenced the intention to become an entrepreneur both at the time of graduation and long afterward.[81] University of Arizona found that entrepreneurship students are three times more likely to be self-employed, have annual incomes 27 per cent higher, and own 62 per cent more assets than other graduates.[82] At the National University of Singapore, entrepreneurship graduates have three times the propensity to start their own business or to be employed in small start-upcompanies, compared to their peers.[83] At the University of Southern California, an average of 37 per cent of students in entrepreneurship launched businesses by the time they graduated.[84] 

Program Characteristics

Alignment to PSU’s mission and goals

TIDE is central to PSU’s vision to become a Destination University of Innovation.  Our students develop ideas and solutions to world problems and become society’s global leaders within interdisciplinary strategic clusters, open labs, partnerships and through entrepreneurial, innovative, and experiential learning.Consistent with the general mission of Plymouth State University, TIDE seeks to produce well-rounded graduates who are equipped both to continue life-long learning, and enter the work force, as employers or employees. In addition, TIDE serves the surrounding community by collaborating with local and regional agencies to provide academic and research support. The fields of Entrepreneurship and Innovation engage exceptionally well with a variety of other disciplines.

The Innovation & Entrepreneurship Cluster applies to all other clusters.

Alignment with PSU’s Transformation to Clusters

Every PSU program that has enterprising students and faculty -- from astronomy to women’s studies – finds intersections with our pillars of transformation, innovation, design, and entrepreneurship.  There are varied intersections between TIDE, our Cluster Partners, and other PSU programs.  See Figure 3 TIDE intersections with other PSU disciplines.  TIDE variously aligns with the new Learning Model:  

  • TIDE aligns with the Cluster mission statement: ‘By promoting the enterprising habit of mind, we design solutions to the widest range of social, educational, commercial, and environmental problems.’ 
  • TIDE is a candidate ‘cluster major’ creating an integrated program of study.  But it is important to note that the present submission is a new major within the School of Business.
  • TIDE has the potential for diverse, interdisciplinary toolkits, projects, service learning, applied labs, assistantships, travel, research, practicum, internships, and special topics. 
  • TIDE promotes student recruitment and the University’s market positioning

Alignment with CoBA Strategic Plan

This new program proposal responds to the 2017 CoBA Strategic Plan, namely to:

Revise the Small Business Entrepreneurship option (in light of new hires), embedding social entrepreneurship in the curriculum and setting the stage for bringing entrepreneurship across the university curriculum.The decision was taken to invest in the undergraduate Small Business/Entrepreneurship option of Management. In spring 2017, the search for two faculty positions in Innovation and Entrepreneurship was successful in hiring one new faculty member who leads curricular development in the SB/E program.

Alignment with URI University Re-invention Initiative

TIDE’s strategic direction and program characteristics can be seen in its URI submission, which CoBA faculty votedunanimously on March 7, 2018 toendorse.  TIDE is listed as Idea #127 in the URI Program Ideas document with an Action Path of 4 (further evaluation is indicated).  Goals addressed were Recruitment (Program Enrollment, Alignment, etc.), Engagement (Retention, Persistence, etc.), Graduation (Timeliness, Connections/2+2, etc.), and Efficiency (Financial, Engaging Students, Course Enrollment, etc.)In the cumulated URI 2018 Program Ideas document, ‘entrepreneurship’ was mentioned repeatedly.  This included Health Education, Art History, Arts & Technologies, Music Technology and Music Entrepreneurship, Dance Entrepreneurship.  We confident that other disciples will follow.

Alignment with ACBSP Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs

As part of the grand curricular change, the new School of Business ‘Foundations Core’ is being re-designed with features such as alignment with general education “Connections”, a novel Signature Experience, team teaching, innovative course scheduling, and a new Business 360 gateway course.  TIDE satisfies the ACBSP Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs’ standards related to the Undergraduate Common Professional Component, whereinbusiness programs recognize the interdisciplinary nature of knowledge when ‘the process of answering a question, solving a problem, or addressing a topic is too broad or complex to be dealt with adequately by a single (academic) discipline’.  CPC seeks to promote innovation in the business curriculum and to challenge the outdated separation of disciplines.

Endnotes


[1] Indonesia: Kembaren, P., Simatupang, T. M., Larso, D., & Wiyancoko, D. (2014). Design Driven Innovation Practices in Design-preneur led Creative Industry. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 9(3), 91–105. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718–27242014000300007; Larso, D., Yulianto, Y., Rustiadi, S., & Aldianto, L. (2009). Developing techno-preneurship program at the Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Leadership (CIEL), School of Business and Management (SBM), Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia. PICMET ’09—2009 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering & Technology, 1901–1908. http://bit.ly/2FGSw3c; Australia: Huq, A., & Gilbert, D. (2017). All the world’s a stage: transforming entrepreneurship education through design thinking. Education + Training, 59(2), 155–170. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/83608131.pdf; Germany: Huber, F., Peisl, T., Gedeon, S., & Brodie, J. (2016). Design thinking-based entrepreneurship education: How to incorporate design thinking principles into an entrepreneurship course. In ResearchGate. Leeds University. http://bit.ly/2B8Cnis; ; Slovenia: Desai, H. P. (2018). Integrating ownership and entrepreneurial mind-set in design education. In Cumulus Conference Proceedings Wuxi 2018 Diffused Transition & Design Opportunities. Cumulus International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media. http://bit.ly/2FtQxir ; European schools: Val, E., Gonzalez, I., Iriarte, I., Beitia, A., Lasa, G., & Elkoro, M. (2017). A Design Thinking approach to introduce entrepreneurship education in European school curricula. The Design Journal, 20(sup1), S754–S766. https://doi.org/10.1080/14606925.2017.1353022; USA: Fry, A., Alexander, R., & Ladhib, S. (2017). Design-entrepreneurship in the post-recession economy: Parsons ELab, a Design School Incubator. Cuadernos del Centro de Estudios de Diseño y Comunicación No 64, 64, 175+. http://bit.ly/2Q7367G

[2] Cruz, Laura, Gillian D. Ellern, George Ford, Hollye Moss, and Barbara Jo White. “Navigating the Boundaries of the Scholarship of Engagement at a Regional Comprehensive University.” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 17, no. 1 (2013): 3–26; McMahan, Shari. “Creating a Model for High Impact Practices at a Large, Regional, Comprehensive University: A Case Study.” Contemporary Issues in Education Research 8, no. 2 (January 1, 2008): 111–16. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1058165; Selingo, Jeffrey. “Regional Public Colleges—the ‘Middle Children’ of Higher Ed—Struggle to Survive.” Washington Post, February 9, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2015/02/09/regional-public-colleges-the-middle-children-of-higher-ed-struggle-to-survive/;Somers, Patricia. “The Freshman Year: How Financial Aid Influences Enrollment and Persistence at a Regional Comprehensive University.” College Student Affairs Journal 16, no. 1 (January 1, 1996): 27–38. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ546955.

[3] Orphan, Cecilia. “Why Regional Comprehensive Universities Are Vital Parts of U.S. Higher Education | Scholars Strategy Network.” Accessed December 30, 2018. https://scholars.org/brief/why-regional-comprehensive-universities-are-vital-parts-us-higher-education; Cruz, Laura, Gillian D. Ellern, George Ford, Hollye Moss, and Barbara Jo White. “Navigating the Boundaries of the Scholarship of Engagement at a Regional Comprehensive University.” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 17, no. 1 (January 1, 2013): 3–26. http://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/index.php/jheoe/article/viewFile/980/651; Hickey, Anthony Andrew, and Kendall W. King. “A Model for Integrating Research Administration and Graduate School Operations at a Regional Comprehensive University.” Research Management Review 2, no. 1 (January 1, 1988): 31–44. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ390845; McMahan, Shari. “Creating a Model for High Impact Practices at a Large, Regional, Comprehensive University: A Case Study.” Contemporary Issues in Education Research 8, no. 2 (January 1, 2008): 111–16. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1058165 .

Somers, Patricia. “The Freshman Year: How Financial Aid Influences Enrollment and Persistence at a Regional Comprehensive University.” College Student Affairs Journal 16, no. 1 (January 1, 1996): 27–38. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ546955.

[4] Selingo, Jeffrey. “Regional Public Colleges—the ‘Middle Children’ of Higher Ed—Struggle to Survive.” Washington Post, February 9, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2015/02/09/regional-public-colleges-the-middle-children-of-higher-ed-struggle-to-survive/.

[5] Sorber, N. M. (2018). Land-Grant Colleges and Popular Revolt: The Origins of the Morrill Act and the Reform of Higher Education. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. See also, Geiger, R. L., & Sorber, N. M. (Eds.). (2013). The Land-Grant Colleges and the Reshaping of American Higher Education (1 edition). New Brunswick (U.S.A.) ; London (U.K.): Transaction Publishers; Ferguson, L. (2015, November 19). Creating the Future Together. Retrieved October 15, 2018, from https://www.plymouth.edu/magazine/uncategorized/creating-the-future-together/;

[6] Chandler, A. D. (2019). The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Project 2000: Significant Works in Twentieth-Century Economic History). http://www.eh.net/?s=the+visible+hand; Ferguson, E. S. (1815). Oliver Evans: Inventive Genius of the American Industrial Revolution. Hagley Museum & Library.; Ferguson, E. S., & Staff, H. M. and L. (1980). Oliver Evans: Inventive Genius of the American Industrial Revolution. Greenville, Del: Hagley Museum & Library. https://amzn.to/2DnAfF1 ; Heath, N. (2011, September 22). American hero or British traitor? https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-derbyshire-15002318; Library of Congress. (n.d.). Teacher’s Guide: The Industrial Revolution in the United States (webpage). //www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/industrial-revolution/; Taylor, G. R. (1976). The Transportation Revolution 1815–1860. M. E. Sharpe.; ushistory.org. (n.d.). The First American Factories. Retrieved November 14, 2018, from http://www.ushistory.org/us/25d.asp

[7] McCarthy, D. (2018). The Future of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Magazine. http://www.nhmagazine.com/January-2018/The-Future-of-New-Hampshire/; New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. (2014). NH Center for Public Policy—Public Colleges, Public Dollars: Higher Education in NH. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. http://www.nhpolicy.org/report/public-colleges-public-dollars-higher-education-in-nh; StayWorkPlay. (2017). Survey. Retrieved November 19, 2018, from http://stayworkplay.org/survey/; Wood, J. (2018, November 19). New Hampshire facing demographic crunch as population ages. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/nov/19/new-hampshire-facing-demographic-crunch-as-population-ages; Patsarika, M. (2014). New capitalism, educational modernisation and the new role of the professional student. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 35(4), 527–539. https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2013.871224

[8] Birx, D. (2016, August). Welcome and the Three E’s: Empowerment, Encouragement, and Excitement. University Day Speech. https://campus.plymouth.edu/president/welcome-and-the-three-es-empowerment-encouragement-and-excitement/

[9] Patel, Vimal. “Want to Revamp Your Curriculum? Here’s How to Avoid a Quagmire.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 4, 2018. https://www.chronicle.com/article/Want-to-Revamp-Your/242725.

[10] Google: “integrated clusters” cross-disciplinary education yields 2,100 results and the top organic results are “Plymouth State University”. See mention of PSU in Patel, Vimal. “Want to Revamp Your Curriculum? Here’s How to Avoid a Quagmire.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 4, 2018. https://www.chronicle.com/article/Want-to-Revamp-Your/242725

[11] EAB. (2016). Inside Plymouth State’s experiment with academic “clusters.” Retrieved November 14, 2018, from https://www.eab.com/daily-briefing/2016/06/24/inside-plymouth-states-experiment-with-academic-clusters; Seltzer, R. (n.d.). Plymouth State announces layoffs, restructuring around interdisciplinary clusters. Retrieved October 19, 2018, from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/06/21/plymouth-state-announces-layoffs-restructuring-around-interdisciplinary-clusters

[12] In 2018, TIDE submitted a University Reinvention Initiative (URI) Program Report, endorsed unanimously by then CoBA faculty, Many PSU URI proposals mentioned ‘entrepreneurship’ in their credo, including Eating disorders, Human Relations, Art History, Bio-chemistry, Music, Public Relations (e.g. The Business of Eating Disorder (Mardie Burckes-Miller), The Business of Art (Sarah Parrish), Bio-chemistry and Innovation (Jeremiah Duncan), Arts and Innovation, Music Entrepreneurship (Rik Pfenniger)). TIDE received a “4” (Further Evaluation is Indicated) in the URI review.  A score of “4” means ‘proceed or continue developing your detailed strategy and timeline and keep us informed (academic affairs and provost council) of your progress’.

[13] Birx, Donald. “Town Hall Progress Report,” July 14, 2016; Birx, Donald. Plymouth State University Interim Report, § New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC) Commission on Institutions of Higher Education on (2018). https://campus.plymouth.edu/neasc/.Fall

[14] Plymouth State University. (2016). Integrated Clusters Working Definitions—Plymouth State University. https://www.plymouth.edu/clusters/files/2016/01/Definitions-Final.pdf

[15] Edudemic Staff. “STEM vs. STEAM: Why The ‘A’ Makes a Difference | Edudemic,” January 11, 2015. http://www.edudemic.com/stem-vs-steam-why-the-a-makes-all-the-difference/; Gardiner, Bonnie. “Picking up STEAM: How the Arts Can Drive STEM Leadership.” CIO (13284045), October 6, 2015, 1–1. https://www.cio.com.au/article/585493/picking-up-steam-how-arts-can-drive-stem-leadership/; Guyotte, Kelly W., Nicki W. Sochacka, Tracie E. Costantino, Joachim Walther, and Nadia N. Kellam. “Steam as Social Practice: Cultivating Creativity in Transdisciplinary Spaces.” Art Education 67, no. 6 (November 1, 2014): 12–19. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00043125.2014.11519293; Piperopoulos, Panagiotis, and Dimo Dimov. “Burst Bubbles or Build Steam? Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Intentions.” Journal of Small Business Management 53, no. 4 (October 1, 2015): 970–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12116; Sochacka, Nicola W., Kelly. W. Guyotte, and Joachim Walther. “Learning Together: A Collaborative Autoethnographic Exploration of STEAM (STEM + the Arts) Education.” Journal of Engineering Education 105, no. 1 (January 2016): 15–42. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jee.20112; Watson, Andrew D., and Gregory H. Watson. “Transitioning STEM to STEAM: Reformation of Engineering Education.” Journal for Quality & Participation 36, no. 3 (October 2013): 1–4. https://www.academia.edu/8766909/Transitioning_STEM_to_STEAM_Reformation_of_Engineering_Education.

[16] Collins, A. (n.d.). How playing an instrument benefits your brain—Anita Collins. Retrieved October 15, 2018, from https://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-playing-an-instrument-benefits-your-brain-anita-collins; Clapp, E. P., & Jimenez, R. L. (2016). Implementing STEAM in maker-centered learning. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10(4), 481–491. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000066; Peppler, K., & Wohlwend, K. (2018). Theorizing the Nexus of STEAM Practice. Arts Education Policy Review, 119(2), 88–99.

[17] In the cross-university context, any student can be enterprising and launch ventures. It of course includes business ventures but also social, environmental, and scientific ventures. But students can also launch (ad)ventures, such as an Outdoor Education student who organizes a twenty-person climb up Mt Kilimanjaro. That trip may not be an incorporated business but still will required business skills.

[18] Cousineau, M. (2016, June 19). Layoffs, “cluster” classes as PSU attempts to revamp higher ed | New Hampshire. UnionLeader.Com. http://www.unionleader.com/Layoffs-cluster-classes-as-PSU-attempts-to-revamp-higher-ed-06202016

[19] Birx, Donald. “The Four Tools of Clusters—Office of President.” Accessed October 15, 2018. https://campus.plymouth.edu/president/the-four-tools-of-clusters/.

[20] Clark, B. (2001). The Entrepreneurial University: New Foundations for Collegiality, Autonomy, and Achievement. Higher Education Management, 13(2), 9–24.; Clark, B.R. (1998). Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation. Issues in Higher Education. Elsevier.; Clark, B. R. (1998). The entrepreneurial university: Demand and response. Tertiary Education and Management, 4(1), 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02679392; Clark, B. R. (2004). Delineating the Character of the Entrepreneurial University. Higher Education Policy, 17(4), 355–370. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300062; Etzkowitz, H. (2004). The evolution of the entrepreneurial university. International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, 1(1), 64–77. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTG.2004.004551; Etzkowitz, H. (2014). The Entrepreneurial University Wave: From Ivory Tower to Global Economic Engine. Industry and Higher Education, 28(4), 223–232. https://doi.org/10.5367/ihe.2014.0211; Etzkowitz, H. (2016). T Etzkowitz, H. (2016). The Entrepreneurial University: Vision and Metrics. Industry and Higher Education, 30(2), 83–97. https://doi.org/10.5367/ihe.2016.0303

[21] Etzkowitz, H. (2014). The Entrepreneurial University Wave: From Ivory Tower to Global Economic Engine. Industry and Higher Education, 28(4), 223–232. https://doi.org/10.5367/ihe.2014.0211

[22] Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2008). Resolving the knowledge paradox: Knowledge-spillover entrepreneurship and economic growth. Research Policy, 37(10), 1697–1705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp01.2008.08.008

[23] The first comprehensive textbook was our predecessor Kuratko, Donald F., and Richard M. Hodgetts. Entrepreneurship: A Contemporary Approach. Dryden Press Series in Management. Chicago: Dryden Press, 1989. See also: Greenwood, K., & And Others. (1984). Resources for Entrepreneurship Education. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED269577; Miller, M. D., Wimberley, D., Oklahoma State University, Occupational and Adult Education, United States, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, . . . Minority Business Development Agency (Eds.). (1984). Promoting entrepreneurship education in vocational education a final report. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, College of Education, Occupational and Adult Education. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED269576; National Center for Research in Vocational Education (U.S.), United States, & Office of Vocational and Adult Education (Eds.). (1984). National Entrepreneurship Education Forum. In National Entrepreneurship Education Forum proceedings of a conference, September 5–6, 1984. Columbus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Education. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED262153; Ross, N., National Center for Research in Vocational Education (U.S.), United States, & Office of Vocational and Adult Education (Eds.). (1984). A National entrepreneurship education agenda for action. Columbus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Ohio State University. http://www.voced.edu.au/content/ngv:42680; Worthington, R. M. (1984). Critical Issues Surrounding Entrepreneurship Education—Present, Past, Future—A Federal Perspective. Office of Vocational and Adult Education. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED251612; McMullan, W. E., & Long, W. A. (1987). Entrepreneurship education in the nineties. Journal of Business Venturing, 2(3), 261–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883–9026(87)90013–9

[24] Gorman, G., Hanlon, D., & King, W. (1997). Some Research Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education, Enterprise Education and Education for Small Business Management: A Ten-Year Literature Review. International Small Business Journal, 15(3), 56–77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242697153004; Henry, C., Hill, F., & Leitch, C. (1996). Entrepreneurship Education and Training. Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, Vt: Ashgate Pub Ltd.; Hills, G. E. (1988). Variations in University entrepreneurship education: An empirical study of an evolving field. Journal of Business Venturing, 3(2), 109–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883–9026(88)90021–3; Kent, C. A. (1990). Entrepreneurship education : current developments, future directions. New York: Quorum Books.; Plaschka, G. R., & Welsch, H. P. (1990). Emerging structures in entrepreneurship education: curricular designs and strategies. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(3), 55–71. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/104225879001400308; Solomon, G. T., & Lloyd W. Fernald, J. (1991). Trends in Small Business Management and Entrepreneurship Education in the United States. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 15(3), 25–40. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879101500303

[25] Vesper, K. H., & Gartner, W. B. (1997). Measuring progress in entrepreneurship education. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(5), 403–421. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883–9026(97)00009–8

[26] Baptista, R., & Naia, A. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education: A Selective Examination of the Literature. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 11(5), 337–426. https://doi.org/10.1561/0300000047; Baptista, R., & Naia, A. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education: A Selective Examination of the Literature. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 11(5), 337–426. https://doi.org/10.1561/0300000047; Gartner, W. B., & Vesper, K. H. (1994). Experiments in entrepreneurship education: successes and failures. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(3), 179–187. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256620228_Experiments_in_entrepreneurship_education_Successes_and_failures; Katz, J. A. (2003). The chronology and intellectual trajectory of American entrepreneurship education: 1876–1999. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 283–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883–9026(02)00098–8; Vesper, K. H., & Gartner, W. B. (1997). Measuring progress in entrepreneurship education. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(5), 403–421. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883–9026(97)00009–8; Henry, C., Hill, F., & Leitch, C. (2003). Entrepreneurship Education and Training: The Issue of Effectiveness. Routledge; Naia, A., Baptista, R., Januário, C., & Trigo, V. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education Literature in the 2000s. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 18(1), 111–135; Solomon, G. (2014). The National Survey of Entrepreneurship Education. Retrieved February 11, 2018, from http://www.nationalsurvey.org/files/2014KauffmanReport_Clean.pdf; Finkle, T. A. (2010). Entrepreneurship education trends. Research in Business and Economics Journal, 1, 35. http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/08034.pdf

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[50] Brown, T. (2008, June 1). Design thinking. https://hbr.org/2008/06/design-thinking; Brown, T. (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. New York: HarperBusiness; Chen, S., & Venkatesh, A. (2013). An investigation of how design-oriented organisations implement design thinking. Journal of Marketing Management, 29, 1680–700; Martin, R. L. (2009). The design of business: Why design thinking is the next competitive advantage. Harvard Business Press; Martin, R. L., Christensen, K., & Martin, R. L. (Eds.). (2013). The design of business. In Rotman on design: The best on design thinking from Rotman magazine (pp. 15–19). University of Toronto Press.

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[53] Cross, N. (1982). Designerly ways of knowing. Design Studies, 3, 221–7. See also Cross, N. (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F1-84628-301-9_1; Cross, N. (2001). Designerly ways of knowing: Design discipline versus design science. Design Issues, 17(3), 49–55; Cross, N. (2007). From a design science to a design discipline: Understanding designerly ways of knowing and thinking. Design ResearchNow, 41–54; Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–69; Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked problems in design thinking. Design Issues, 8, 5–21. https://web.archive.org/web/20200107113337/https://www.jstor.org/stable/1511637  .

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[55] For inspiring this definition, we credit Lackéus, M., Lundqvist, M., & Middleton, K. W. (2016). Bridging the traditional-progressive education rift through entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 22(6), 777–803. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-03–2016–0072. See also Lackéus, M. (2013). Developing Entrepreneurial Competencies—An Action-Based Approach and Classification in Education. Chalmers University of Technology. https://research.chalmers.se/publication/186625; Lackéus, M. (2014). An emotion based approach to assessing entrepreneurial education. The International Journal of Management Education, 12(3), 374–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2014.06.005; Lackéus, M. (2015). Entrepreneurship in education: What, why, when, how. OECD. https://www.oecd.org/cfe/leed/BGP_Entrepreneurship-in-Education.pdf; Lackéus, M., Lundqvist, M., & Middleton, K. W. (2011). Obstacles to Establishing Venture Creation Based Entrepreneurship Education Programs. Nordic Academy of Management Meeting (NFF) Conference, Stockholm. https://research.chalmers.se/publication/142642; Lackéus, M., & Middleton, K. W. (2015). Venture creation programs: bridging entrepreneurship education and technology transfer. Education + Training, 57(1), 48–73. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-02–2013–0013

[56] Entrepreneurial Will means eagerly committing to expend great energy and take calculated risks to create value. Enterprising Mind-Set means marked by imagination, initiative and readiness to undertake new endeavors. Transformative Innovations create opportunity spaces for entrepreneurs and give rise to entirely new industries. Design Entrepreneurship combines creativity and imagination to achieve break-through solutions to ill-defined yet complex problems.

[57] The origins of the phrase is in dispute. Senator John F. Kennedy’s speechwriter Theodore Sorensen writes that the aphorism stems from JFK's tenure in the Senate, when Sorensen noticed that ‘the regional chamber of commerce, the New England Council, had a thoughtful slogan: ‘A rising tide lifts all the boats.’  Sorensen, Ted. Counselor: A Life at the Edge of History. Reprint edition. Harper Perennial, 2009, p. 227; “Etymology - Origin of ‘a Rising Tide Lifts All Boats.’” English Language & Usage Stack Exchange. Accessed February 19, 2019. https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/230520/origin-of-a-rising-tide-lifts-all-boats; Quora. “How to Lift Boats by Raising Your Tide.” Nina Amir (blog), December 10, 2018. https://ninaamir.com/lift-boats-raising-your-tide/; Wikipedia. “A Rising Tide Lifts All Boats.” In Wikipedia, January 30, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A_rising_tide_lifts_all_boats&oldid=880887294.

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[77] Maritz, Alex. “Illuminating the Black Box of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes: Part 2.” Education + Training 59, no. 5 (May 9, 2017): 471–82. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-02-2017-0018; Maritz, Alex, and Christopher R. Brown. “Illuminating the Black Box of Entrepreneurship Education Programs.” Education + Training 55, no. 3 (2013): 234–52. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400911311309305; Maritz, Alex, Colin Jones, and Claudia Shwetzer. “The Status of Entrepreneurship Education in Australian Universities.” Education + Training 57, no. 8/9 (October 2015): 1020–35; Maritz, Alex. “Enhancing Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy through Vocational Entrepreneurship Education Programmes.” Journal of Vocational Education & Training 65, no. 4 (2013). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13636820.2013.853685.

[78] Abdullah, M., Nel, P., Mellalieu, P., & Thaker, A. (2016). Immigrant entrepreneurs in Malaysia : an exploratory study on their business success and prospects in small retail business. ; http://unitec.researchbank.ac.nz/handle/10652/3576; Frederick, H. H., Thompson, J., Mellalieu, P. J., & Dana, L.-P. (2004). New Zealand Perspectives of International Entrepreneurship. In Handbook of research on international entrepreneurship (pp. 533–548). Cheltenham, U.K. and Northampton, Mass.: Elgar; Kearns, N., Saifoloi, M., & Mellalieu, P. (2014). Introducing Education for Enterprise within island and immigrant Pacific communities: Capacity building lessons from the New Zealand experience; Mellalieu, P. (2015). Wealth with green : lessons with exemplary green enterprise. http://unitec.researchbank.ac.nz/handle/10652/3382

[79] Top 25 Entrepreneurship: Ugrad | The Princeton Review. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2018, from https://web.archive.org/web/20191009163333/https://www.princetonreview.com/college-rankings?rankings=top-25-entrepreneurship-ugrad

[80] Aguirre Guillén, J. M., Torres García, A., & Giordano, K. (2010). Tecnológico de Monterrey. In M. L. Fetters, P. G. Greene, M. P. Rice, & J. S. Butler (Eds.), The Development of University-Based Entrepreneurship Ecosystems: Global Practices (pp. 122–149). Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.

[81] Babson College. (n.d.). Can Entrepreneurship Be Taught? | News and Events. Retrieved February 11, 2018, from http://www.babson.edu/news-events/babson-news/Pages/110620-does-entrepreneurship-education-have-value-can-entrepreneurship-be-taught.aspx; Lange, J., Marram, E., Jawahar, A., Yong, W., & Bygrave, W. (2011). Does an entrepreneurship education have lasting value? A study of careers of 4,000 alumni. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 31(6). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e89f/7df3311d9ba3d4b1379c67fed208a1c63565.pdf; Lange, J., Marram, E., Jawahar, A., Yong, W., & Bygrave, W. D. (2014). Does an Entrepreneurship Education Have Lasting Value? A Study of Careers of 3,775 Alumni (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2412930). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2412930

[82] Charney, A., & Libecap, G. (2000). The impact of entrepreneurship education: an evaluation of the Berger Entrepreneurship Program at the University of Arizona, 1985-1999. Revised Final Report to the Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership. Kansas City: The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 29. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.584.9846&rep=rep1&type=pdf; University of Arizona. (2000). Graduate Entrepreneurs Prosper, Innovate: New Study Indicates Entrepreneurship Program Alumni Start More New Businesses, Develop More Products, Make More Money than Their Peers. https://web.archive.org/web/20120416085830/http://ebr.eller.arizona.edu/research/entrepreneurSummary.pdf

[83] Yuen-Ping, H., Singh, A., & Wong, P.-K. (2010). National University of Singapore. In M. L. Fetters, P. G. Greene, M. P. Rice, & J. S. Butler (Eds.), The Development of University-Based Entrepreneurship Ecosystems: Global Practices (pp. 122–149). Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.

[84] Allen, K., & Lieberman, A. (2010). University of Southern California. In M. L. Fetters, P. G. Greene, M. P. Rice, & J. S. Butler (Eds.), The Development of University-Based Entrepreneurship Ecosystems: Global Practices (pp. 122–149). Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.

Design entrepreneurship combines science, culture, and values

We can look at design entrepreneurship through a variety of lenses, including history, mindsets, perception, problems, cognition/reasoning, and tools and practices.

Designerly ways of knowing

The roots of design thinking theory go back to two streams of literature: the design literature, dating back to the 1960s; and management theory literature, starting around the turn of the millennium.[1] Most people date the origin of design thinking to Herbert Simon’s 1969 book Sciences of the Artificial. Simon wrote that ‘everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones’.[2]

Yet Simon’s notion was largely limited to architecture, engineering, and urban planning; the field had to wait until the 1980s, when Cross made the mental leap to ‘designerly ways of knowing’, to bridge the gap between architecture and social sciences. Cross’ conceptual breakthrough was to see design as one of three ‘cultures’ of knowing, alongside science (as in physics or chemistry but also the social sciences) and the humanities (as in arts and history). There are things to know, ways of knowing them, and ways of finding out about them that are specific to each discipline.

Designerly Ways of Knowing
Aldakhil, Bedour, “Designerly Ways of Knowing.” Designerly Ways of Knowing (blog), April 1, 2014. https://blog.soton.ac.uk/wsapgr/2014/04/01/designerly-ways-of-knowing/.
  • What do we study: In science we study the natural world; in humanities the human experience. But in design we study the artificial world that is all around us.
  • How do we study each culture? In the sciences we use experimentation, analysis and classification; in the humanities analogy, metaphor, criticism and evaluation. However, in design we study pattern formation, synthesis and modelling.
  • What are the supreme values of each culture? In the sciences we value above all else objectivity, rationality, neutrality and truth; in the humanities subjectivity, imagination, commitment and justice. What makes design different is that here we value most highly practicality, ingenuity, empathy and appropriateness. [3]

Science, humanism, and design united through wicked problems

Despite this breakthrough, scientists, humanists and designers continued down their separate paths. Lawson lamented the situation that ‘the psychologists and sociologists have gone on researching and the designers designing, and they are yet to re-educate each other into more genuinely collaborative roles … the creators and users of environments often remain uncomfortably remote’.[4]

Wicked Problem
A wicked problem is challenging or impossible to solve.

The connections really came together in the 1990s when Rittel and Webber argued that design and planning should focus on wicked problems[5] and Buchanan noted that design thinking could address intractable human concerns.[6] A wicked problem is a problem, usually social or cultural, that is challenging or impossible to solve because not enough is understood about either the problem, the number of stakeholders involved, the number of varying opinions, the economic burden, or the impact of these problems on other problems.

Design Thinking and the New Liberal Arts

Cross originally argued that design should be considered part of general education because, quite like science and the humanities, design develops unique innate abilities in solving real-world, ill-defined problems and sustains unique forms of cognitive development. This has now become a creed: ‘Design Thinking is the new Liberal Arts.’ Design thinking helps overcome the false dichotomy between the humanities and science because it prepares students for the active creation of the new realities that science and the humanities have imagined as possible.[7]

Wladawsky-Berger, Irving. “Is Design Thinking the New Liberal Arts?” WSJ (blog), November 4, 2016. https://blog.irvingwb.com/blog/2016/10/design-thinking-and-the-liberal-arts.html.

Design Thinking adapted to entrepreneurship

Finally, in the early 1990s, design thinking began to be adapted for business purposes by brothers Tom and David Kelley, who as practitioners took these lessons and founded the global design and innovation consultancy IDEO, and who produced significant works themselves that observed the connection between design, management, and entrepreneurship. The Kelleys’ most enduring contributions are to human-centred design methodology, design thinking, and unlocking the capacity of ‘confidence’.[8]Even so, it took yet another decade for serious literature on the design-focused workplace to appear.[9] Since about 2000, serious works have poured forth a theory and practice of design thinking in the business realm that entrepreneurs cannot ignore.[10] In 2008, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation asked IDEO to codify the process of human-centred design, which resulted in the Human-Centered Design Toolkit.[11]

The process of design entrepreneurship

The teaching approach of design thinking as we know it today goes back to Hasso Plattner’s and IDEO’s influence on Stanford’s d.school and the University of Toronto’s Rotman School, among others, who collectively over some three years outlined the design thinking process model (see below).[12] These works are now best represented in the Field Guide to Human-Centered Design and the Designing for Growth Field Book.[13]

EtappeTM Design Thinking Process Model from Howard Frederick et al., Entrepreneurship Theory Process Practice (Melbourne: Cengage Learning, 2019), p. 198.

Design entrepreneurship is now conceived as a method that allows non-designers, including business and social entrepreneurs, to innovate proactively. The use of design thinking in entrepreneurship is seen in Roger Martin’s article ‘Design and business: Why can’t we be friends?[14]  Tim Brown, former CEO of IDEO, described the sea change in business logic:

Most of us are trained in what I would call analytical thinking. Analytical thinking is … good for analysis and cutting things apart and slicing and dicing the world. It’s also good for extrapolation or prediction from the past into the future. What analytical thinking isn’t very good for is trying to envision a new future and figure out how to change it. … In design thinking, … you’re trying to create a future.[15]

Summary

There are different ways of acquiring knowledge today. Science uses experimentation to analyse the natural world. Humanities use metaphor and criticism to describe the human experience. Design, however, uses pattern formation, synthesis and modelling to study the artificial world all around us. Design can address intractable human concerns, also known as wicked problems. These problems are difficult to solve because we do not know enough and the stakeholders involved are too numerous and their opinions too divergent. We see that design thinking is used by non-designers such as entrepreneurs to innovate proactively and create a future. The technique has been used in many interesting areas, such as product development, architectural space, curriculum, and even personal problems. Design reduces pain. Design satisfies need. Design creates value. History shows that designers have applied the human-centric creative process to build meaningful and effective solutions that meet the needs of humanity.

Design thinking theory goes back to design literature and management theory. Only in the 1980s did designers and social scientists make the mental leap to ‘designerly ways of knowing’ to solve the world’s wicked problems. The connection between design, management, and entrepreneurship occurred relatively late, but now many have realised what a powerful methodology it is in many realms, from new product and service design to personal growth.

Cover of Frederick, O'Connor, Kuratko (2019), Entrepreneurship Theory Process Practice (Melbourne: Cengage) Source: Excerpted from Frederick, H. H., A. O’Connor, and D. F. Kuratko. Entrepreneurship Theory Process Practice. 5th Asia-Pacific edition. Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning Australia, 2019. https://bit.ly/cengage-etpp.


Endnotes

[1] Hassi, L., & Laakso, M. (2011). Making sense of design thinking. In T.-M. Karalainen, M. Koria, & M. Salimäki (Eds.), IDBM papers (Vol. 1, pp. 51–62). Helsinki: IDBM Program, Aalto University. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301293326_IDBM_Papers_Vol1.

[2] Simon (1969). The sciences of the artificial, 111. Retrieved from https://monoskop.org/images/9/9c/Simon_Herbert_A_The_Sciences_of_the_Artificial_3rd_ed.pdf. Simon did have one predecessor, L. Bruce Archer, who argued that design was ‘not merely a craft-based skill but should be considered a knowledge-based discipline in its own right’: Archer, L. B. (1979). Design as a discipline. Design Studies, 1(1), 17–20.

[3] Cross, N. (1982). Designerly ways of knowing. Design Studies, 3, 221–7. See also Cross, N. (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. Springer. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/1-84628-301-9_1.pdf; Cross, N. (2001). Designerly ways of knowing: Design discipline versus design science. Design Issues, 17(3), 49–55; Cross, N. (2007). From a design science to a design discipline: Understanding designerly ways of knowing and thinking. Design Research Now, 41–54.

[5] Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–69.

[6] Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked problems in design thinking. Design Issues, 8, 5–21. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1511637

[7] Burnette, C. (2016). Bridging design and business thinking. In S. Junginger & J. Faust (Eds.),Designing Business and Management, 95–104. Bloomsbury Publishing; Szasz, O. (2016). Design thinking as an indication of a paradigm shift. In S. Junginger & J. Faust (Eds.), Designing Business and Management, 105–16. Bloomsbury Publishing; Cross, A. (1980). Design and general education. Design Studies, 1(4), 202–6; Schrand, T. (2016). Design thinking as a strategy for consensus in general education reform. Peer Review, 18(3), 17–20.; Marber, P., & Araya, D. (2017). The evolution of liberal arts in the global age. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2RbzDGG ; Miller, P. N. (2015, March 26). Is ‘design thinking’ the new liberal arts? The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.chronicle.com/article/Is-Design-Thinking-the-New/228779 ; Miller, P. N. (2017). Is ‘design thinking’ the new liberal arts? In P. Marber & D. Araya (Eds.), The evolution of liberal arts in the global age, 167. Routledge; Smith College, Maestria Virtual (n.d.). Design thinking and the liberal arts: A framework for re-imagining a liberal arts education. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/25787095/Design_Thinking_and_the_Liberal_Arts_a_framework_for_re-imagining_a_liberal_arts_education?auto=download ; Wladawsky-Berger, I. (2016). Is design thinking the ‘new liberal arts’? Retrieved from http://blog.irvingwb.com/blog/2016/10/design-thinking-and-the-liberal-arts.html

[8] Kelley, T. (2001). The art of innovation: Lessons in creativity from IDEO, America’s leading design firm (Vol. 10). Broadway Business; Kelley, D., & Kelley, T. (2013). Creative confidence: Unleashing the creative potential within us all. Crown Business; Kelley, T. (2005). The ten faces of innovation: IDEO’s strategies for beating the devil’s advocate & driving creativity throughout your organization. Broadway Business; Kelley, T., & Kelley, D. (2012). Reclaim your creative confidence. Harvard Business Review, 90, 115–8

[9] Bolland, R. J., & Collopy, F. (2004). Managing as designing. Stanford University Press; Dunne, D., & Martin, R. (2006). Design thinking and how it will change management education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5, 512–23; Florida, R. L. (2004). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York, NY: Basic Books. Gullberg, G., Landström, A., Widmark, E., & Nyström, M. (2005). Design thinking in business innovation. REMOTEL. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:414819; Heskett, J. (2005). Design: A very short introduction (Vol. 136). Oxford University Press; Kelley (2005). The ten faces of innovation; Pink, D. H. (2005). A whole new mind: Moving from the information age to the conceptual age (1st edn). New York: Riverhead Books.

[10] Brown, T. (2008). Design thinking. Harvard Business Review, June. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2008/06/design-thinking ; Brown, T. (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. New York: HarperBusiness; Lockwood, T. (2009). Transition: How to become a more design-minded organization. Design Management Review, 20, 28–37; Martin, R. (2009). What is design thinking anyway? Retrieved from http://designobserver.com/feature/what-is-design-thinking-anyway/11097 ; Martin (2009). The design of business.

[11] Acumen + HCD (2009). The human-centered design toolkit. Retrieved from https://www.ideo.com/post/design-kit.

[12] Acumen + HCD (2009). The human-centered design toolkit; IDEO. (2009). Design kit: The human-centered design toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.designkit.org/; Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stranford (2010). An introduction to design thinking process guide. The Institute of Design at Stanford: Stanford. Retrieved from https://stanford.io/2KykQ6I ; IDEO LLC & Riverdale Country School (2012). Design thinking for educators toolkit (2nd edn). Retrieved from https://designthinkingforeducators.com/; Liedtka, J., & Ogilvie, T. (2014). Designing for growth : A design thinking tool kit for managers. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Designing-Growth-Thinking-Managers-Publishing/dp/0231158386 .

[13] IDEO LLC (2015). The field guide to human-centered design. Retrieved from http://www.designkit.org/resources/1; Liedtka, J., Ogilvie, T., & Brozenske, R. (2014). The designing for growth field book: A step-by-step project guide. Columbia University Press. Retrieved from http://www.designingforgrowthbook.com/ .

[14] Martin, R. (2007). Design and business: Why can’t we be friends? Journal of Business Strategy, 28, 6–12.

[15] JR (2007, 24 September). Managing innovation. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB119023924039732943 .

La historia del emprendimiento a través de las eras

A lo largo de la historia, ha habido emprendedores que descubrieron y explotaron oportunidades que cambiaron al mundo. Al mismo tiempo, los seres humanos desarrollaron un sentido de individualismo, “los soñadores que hacen [dreamers who do]“, como los llamó el experto en innovación Gifford Pinchot, a menudo han enfrentado desafíos desalentadores, incluso mortales, para realizar sus sueños. Los empresarios frecuentemente enfrentan prejuicios, discriminación e incluso la muerte por sus creencias y prácticas. En 2015, la xenofobia levantó su cabeza del terror a menudo con los emprendedores inmigrantes, por ejemplo, los inmigrantes somalíes en Sudáfrica fueron los primeros en ser asesinados.[1]

hunter gatherers taken from William MacKenzie's National Encyclopaedia (1891)
Cazadores recolectores William MacKenzie's National Encyclopaedia (1891)

¿Había emprendedores en el periodo paleolítico hace 40 000 años? Depende que entendamos por emprendimiento, pero desde la perspectiva Darwiniana, tal vez sí. Por ejemplo, la tolerancia necesaria para sobrevivir, fue generando una ventaja evolutiva sobre otras especies. En la terminología de hoy en día, probablemente diríamos que un cazador-recolector que desarrolló una nueva arma o instrumento, buscó "una ventaja de nicho en el mercado salvaje". A medida que la tecnología para la agricultura se fue desarrollando, se tuvo la oportunidad de acumular excedentes más allá del autoconsumo, dando origen a las primeras civilizaciones, iniciando nuevas estructuras sociales, poco a poco abandonando la lucha por mera supervivencia, para usar estos excedentes de producción y conocimiento acumulado para iniciar comunidades establecidas y comercio con otras sociedades. ¿Algunas personas también pudieron haber decidido prestar su ¿capital? y conocimiento a otros para beneficio personal o del clan, pero en una sociedad colectiva era mejor ocultar la ganancia individual.? Nota: creo que en etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las sociedades, no podríamos hablar de capital, la emisión de moneda, llegó más tarde.

Los datos antropológicos nos dicen que la creación de la riqueza ha existido durante milenios. En excavaciones en la antigua Sumeria, se encontraron ejemplos de escritura cuneiforme en tabletas de arcilla, mostrando registros de operaciones comerciales, de impuestos. Estos primeros registros de negocio muestran que la innovación y el emprendimiento son los aspectos clave en las civilizaciones que han estado con la humanidad desde hace mucho tiempo.[2] Los antiguos Asirios, situados en lo que hoy es Iraq, llevaron a cabo la transferencia tecnológica y de innovación de ese tiempo, tuvieron un cuerpo de trabajadores del conocimiento y desarrollaron empresas de comunicación.[3]  Los Asirios heredaron de Sumeria y Babilonia los indicios de lo que podríamos llamar un sistema de empresa privada

Cuneiform tablet: private letter concerning consignment of textiles
Tablilla cuneiforme: carta privada sobre el envío de textiles

Wingham cree que el emprendimiento tal como lo conocemos hoy se desarrolló en el siglo XI AC en la antigua Fenicia.[4] Una nación navegante de mercaderes y comerciantes, los fenicios conectaron pacíficamente un imperio comercial que iba de Siria en el este, a España e incluso a Irlanda en el oeste. Los comerciantes fenicios eran los trekkers o tractores estrella de su edad - verdaderos emprendedores que vieron oportunidades de negocio, desarrollaron una solución y la ejecutaron asumiendo los riesgos respectivos. Exploraron el desconocido y enfrentaron el caos y la incertidumbre diario. Ciertamente devolvieron beneficios a los inversionistas, a los comerciantes y a ellos mismos. Esta pacífica nación comercial fue barrida por el belicoso y avaricioso imperio persa, y así como estos primeros esfuerzos emprendedores y comerciales de los fenicios.

Christ drives the Usurers out of the Temple, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder in Passionary of Christ and Antichrist
Cristo expulsa a los usureros del templo, una xilografía de Lucas Cranach el Viejo en Pasionario de Cristo y el Anticristo

En los tiempos bíblicos, un individuo emprendedor con gran habilidad e independencia enfrentaba los prejuicios que las sociedades tenían contra la usura (cobrar una tarifa por el uso del dinero), que en la Biblia era vista como una abominación. Ezequiel 18:13 dice: “que presta a interés y exige con usura (dinero); ¿vivirá? ¡No vivirá! Ha cometido todas estas abominaciones, ciertamente morirá; su sangre será sobre él.”  Imagínense que significa buscar la ventaja de nicho en esos tiempos.

River vessel carrying barrels, assumed to be wine
Barco fluvial romano que transporta barriles, se supone que son vinos.

Los romanos permitieron la usura, pero, curiosamente, no para ellos mismos. Cualquier empresa de negocios por alguien de la nobleza en realidad llevaba a la pérdida de prestigio. La acumulación de riqueza fue muy valorada siempre que no implicara la participación de un noble en la industria o el comercio.[5] En Roma no había ausencia de creación de riqueza, solo de comercio. La tenencia de la tierra y la usura eran las rutas habituales para la creación de riqueza: "El dinero provenía del botín, indemnizaciones, impuestos provinciales, préstamos y extracciones diversas”.[6] Esta aversión al comercio entre la nobleza dejó el camino abierto para los libertos empresariales, antiguos esclavos que fueron por sus amos para dirigir los negocios. La esclavitud puede haber sido una de las pocas vías de avance comercial para las personas de las clases bajas.

Por sorprendente que pueda parecer, en la antigua Roma, la innovación y el beneficio estaban completamente desconectados.

Tiberius, Romisch-Germanisches Museum, Cologne
Tiberius, Romisch-Germanisches Museum, Cologne

Ciertamente, los romanos hicieron avances considerables en tecnología, pero esto estaba desconectado del comercio. Pliny escribe que un día un inventor se presentó ante el emperador Tiberio para mostrarle su invención de una ventana de vidrio irrompible y suplicarle por una cuota de inventor. Tiberio preguntó si le había dicho a alguien sobre la fórmula. El hombre le aseguró que la invención era absolutamente secreta, con lo cual el emperador cortó inmediatamente su cabeza “para que el oro no se redujera al valor de barro”. Esta historia de terror, no solo implica la pobreza de liderazgo de este gobernante, si no que esta historia nos revela algo relevante para efectos de emprendimiento, y es que el inventor tuvo que recurrir al emperador por una posible recompensa; es decir la recompensa estaba sujeta al gobernante y no al mercado, por lo que pensar en un inversionista no estaba dentro de la mente de este inventor, ¡ni tampoco podía proteger su propiedad intelectual![7]. En el Imperio Romano, el desarrollo de innovaciones, solo estaba conectado si el gobernante veía un clara e inmediata aplicación militar y de conquista, no estaba conectado con la creación de riqueza y mucho menos con el desarrollo de la sociedad.

Ancient Chinese emperor
Emperador chino antiguo

En la China medieval surge una importantísima innovación que cambia la historia de la humanidad: el papel moneda. Sin embargo, era difícil la actividad empresarial y más aún iniciar alguna aventura emprendedora, ya que el monarca poseía toda la propiedad. Cuando el emperador necesitaba dinero en efectivo, simplemente lo extraía de sus nobles ricos y de los impuestos. Esta forma de hacerse de ingresos por parte del monarca, representaba un fuerte desincentivo para poner nuevas empresas, por temor a perderla tan fácilmente, además de lo complicado de los permisos imperiales. La erudición y acceso a un puesto gubernamental eran los principales caminos hacia el éxito o el acceso a la riqueza y el valor estaba atado en la tierra, al gobierno. La riqueza estaba asociada a aquellos que pasaban los exámenes y ganaron puestos de gobierno, más que a los esfuerzos comerciales o de empresa. No obstante, la ruta de la seda del lejano oriente al occidente europeo, o mejor dicho las rutas de la seda, ya que era una gran cantidad de rutas que en conjunto le llamamos "la ruta de la seda", si bien, necesitaba de un permiso imperial y pagar los impuestos respectivos para operar, desde la China medieval y por alrededor de mil años, represento un esfuerzo emprendedor excepcional. Los comerciantes de la ruta de la seda, enfrentaron un esfuerzo empresarial impresionante que implicaba, incertidumbre, capacidad de adaptación, retos y todo tipo de peligros que difícilmente un emprendedor de nuestros tiempos, sería capaz de enfrentar.

Un ejemplo muy interesante en la historia, es el surgimiento del Islam, desde sus orígenes, promovió el emprendimiento empresarial. Si bien tenía estrictas normas de conducta, como por ejemplo, la prohibición en el consumo de carne de cerdo, de alcohol, los juegos de azar, la prostitución y la usura. Salvo estas restricciones, los musulmanes eran libres de invertir su dinero en cualquier actividad económica, produciendo, comerciando y consumiendo lo que consideraran pertinente. Las negociones y el comercio han sido parte del islam, desde los días pre-islámicos, la Ciudad Santa de La Meca ha sido el centro de las actividades comerciales. Culturalmente, en el islam no existe un conflicto básico entre las buenas prácticas empresariales y las ganancias. Un estudioso de la iniciativa empresarial de Turquía escribe que en la primavera de 595 D.C., la empresaria Lady Khadija tuvo un sueño diciéndole que contratar a un hombre llamado Mohammed como su agente comercial por su honestidad y resistencia en las largas rutas de camellos. De hecho, escribe Adas, si el profeta Mahoma viviera hoy “en su tarjeta de presentación se habría escrito” exportador e importador “.[8]

Mientras tanto, en Europa en la Edad Media, la riqueza y el poder no provenían de la perspicacia empresarial, sino de la conquista militar. Innovaciones como la armadura, la ballesta y la pólvora eran necesarias para las campañas militares, no para las tiendas minoristas. En la cortes reales, la nobleza aprendían la guerra como el medio aceptado para acumular riqueza.

Como anécdota, en el libro de Mark Twain, “Yankee de Connecticut en la Corte del Rey Arturo”, compite en la Mesa Redonda cuando un empresario americano es transportado mágicamente de vuelta al pasado, establece una academia de empresas y una fábrica de armas competidora y hace un trato con el Rey para tomar un porcentaje del incremento en el producto bruto del reino.[9] Vea a Bugs Bunny interpretar al empresario yanqui en la Corte del Rey Arturo!

A medida que Europa pasaba de una economía feudal al capitalismo naciente, las condiciones comenzaron a cambiar. Los empresarios comerciantes sobresalieron en la construcción naval, construyeron redes comerciales globales y usaron armamento avanzado para protegerlos. Aparecieron formas de usura, tales como préstamos a gobernantes, monopolios arrendados, compra a crédito, tipos de cambio fijos y así sucesivamente. Los empresarios mercaderes se convirtieron en protagonistas importantes de la política europea y los propietarios de flotas marítimas y de bancos produjeron descendientes que, como los Medici, podían convertirse en gobernantes seculares o incluso en papas.[10] A finales de la Edad Media, los siervos emancipados y las ciudades sin impuestos, y los mercados medievales de esta etapa, favorecieron un espíritu emprendedor y empresarial en Europa, hasta surgir los primeros grandes corporativos como la Compañía de las Indias Orientales del Reino Unido y Holanda, o la Compañía de las Indias Orientales, también Holandesa, en donde la relación empresa-estado cambió hasta nuestros días, teniendo ahora los grandes corporativos una importante influencia en las acciones del estado.

Aún en peligro y ambientes poco propicios, el espíritu emprendedor ha impulsado muchos de los logros de la humanidad. La actividad emprendedora empresarial se puede observar en corporaciones multinacionales que existieron en Asiria. Los antiguos griegos tenían competiciones del nombre de "una marca" o región. Un viaje de negocios no era desconocido para los tíos de Marco Polo y para los emprendedores de la ruta de la seda. Habían clusters industriales en Fenicia, formas creativas e innovadoras de libre empresa perduraron, a veces durante siglos.[11]

El progreso de la humanidad desde las cuevas hasta los campus ha sido explicado de muchas maneras, pero un factor crítico en prácticamente todas estas explicaciones ha sido el rol del agente del cambio que inicia e implementa el progreso material. El nuevo pensamiento incluso ve un aspecto Darwiniano. Al igual que los organismos seleccionados en los sistemas biológicos, los emprendedores están a la vanguardia de desarrollar, retener y seleccionar información útil para la supervivencia.[12]

Los emprendedores de hoy pueden ser los individuos proto-típicos soberanos. En El Soberano Individual, Davidson y Rees-Mogg ven la historia como ciclos de aproximadamente 500 años -desde la gloria y el declive de Atenas (500 AEC), hasta el amanecer del cristianismo y la caída de Roma (500 EC), hasta el surgimiento del feudalismo (1000 EC) y su colapso alrededor de 1500. Cada ciclo ve el agarre rígido del sistema gubernamental que finalmente se derrumba y la liberación (temporal) de individuos de controles indeseables. Los autores dicen que en la edad moderna los ciudadanos ya no necesitan estar sujetos a la autoridad de un estado-nación. Los emprendedores del mañana residirán en Internet y seleccionarán dónde residir y hacer negocios basándose en el costo versus el beneficio. Compararán los servicios (servicios públicos, protección policial e incluso la moneda) en un mercado que ya no está dominado por los monopolios estatales.[14]

La historia del emprendimiento ha evolucionado con el espíritu empresarial desde los siglos antiguos hasta los tiempos modernos.

La Transferencia de México a EE.UU. de un Modelo Universitario de Educación Emprendedora(Opens in a new browser tab)

Los emprendedores frente a lo desconocido(Opens in a new browser tab)


[1] Ramachandran, V., & Shah, M. K. (1999). Minority entrepreneurs and firm performance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Development Studies, 36(2), 71–87. core-hf.

[2] Moore, K., & Lewis, D. (1999). Birth of the Multinational: 2000 Years of Ancient Business History - From Ashur to Augustus.

[3] Luсkenbill, D. D. (1927). Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia. University of Chicago Press. https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/publications/misc/ancient-records-assyria-and-babylonia-volume-2-historical-records-assyria

[4] Wingham, D. (2003). Entrepreneurship through the ages. In Entrepreneurship: The Way Ahead. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203356821

[5] Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 893–921.

[6] Finley, M. I. (1965). Technical Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World. The Economic History Review, 18(1), 29–45. https://doi.org/10.2307/2591872

[7] Finley, M. I. Technical innovation, cited in Baumol (1990), 32.

[8] Adas, E. B. (2006). The Making of Entrepreneurial Islam and the Islamic Spirit of Capitalism. Journal for Cultural Research, 10(2), 113–137. https://doi.org/10.1080/14797580600624745

[9] Twain, M. (n.d.). A Connecticut Yankee In King Arthur’s Court [Un yanqui en la corte del rey Arturo]. Retrieved June 10, 2019, from https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/174/a-connecticut-yankee-in-king-arthurs-court/

[10] Favier, J. (1998). Gold & spices: The rise of commerce in the Middle Ages. Holmes & Meirer. https://books.google.com/books/about/Gold_Spices.html?id=fDmGAAAAIAAJ

[11] Moore, K., & Lewis, D. (1999). Birth of the Multinational: 2000 Years of Ancient Business History - From Ashur to Augustus.

[12] Galor, O., & Michalopoulos, S. (2006). The evolution of entrepreneurial spirit and the process of development. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=996684

[13] Kent, C. A., Sexton, D. L., & Vesper, K. H. (1982). Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1496225). Social Science Research Network, p.xxix.. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1496225

[14] Davidson, J. D., & Rees-Mogg, L. W. (2020). The Sovereign Individual: Mastering the Transition to the Information Age. Simon and Schuster. https://mlpol.net/images/src/7F7B3558724FAF5D76D79A4F1773763E-1327900.pdf

Cover of Frederick, O'Connor, Kuratko (2016), Entrepreneurship Theory Process Practice (Melbourne: Cengage) Adapted from Asia-Pacific edition of Entrepreneurship Theory Process Practice (Melbourne: Cengage, 2016)

Ideation and Prototyping in HackATL

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | entreVersity uses expert-driven AI to choose top articles/posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases | Like this feed? Subscribe here | This article from IQ Magazine has great content on showing how HackATL uses ideation and prototyping to design new ventures.| Other Design Thinking in  Lean Business Model Design.

 See also. Magazine, I. Q. “The Ideation and Prototyping Process.” Medium, May 26, 2020. https://medium.com/@eevmiqmagazine/the-ideation-and-prototyping-process-544651bc26c8.

View source article at The Ideation and Prototyping Process

Every year, our organization Emory Entrepreneurship & Venture Management (EEVM) hosts HackATL, the most prominent business hackathon in the Southeast. This article details key aspects of the hackathon process- how to ideate and prototype.

Ideation typically occurs after a problem is identified. In the traditionally used Design Thinking Process, ideation occurs after one researches and connects with a problem. This is a time to connect passion with practicality and catalyze one’s interests into a wide range of solutions. Ideation is all about thinking big, asking the right questions, culminating perspectives, and uncovering undiscovered areas of thought.

After ideation, the prototyping phase takes place, where the implementation of your ideas starts to develop.. Now that an abundance of ideas and possible solutions have been created in ideation, you can now test the ideas and put them in action. This is a time where ideas become more concrete and therefore, comparable and testable. In this phase, people typically create an early stage, inexpensive form of their innovation. This is highly variable as well, prototypes could be a wireframe of a website or app, detailed sketches, or even real models.

Prototypes can vary in terms of their extensiveness but the main goal of creating these examples is allowing for evaluation and testing. After this testing, you can then alter the prototypes so they are more effective, practical, and well-received by the target demographic. Now, I should clarify that while ideation is extremely important, ideation is not equivalent to innovation as a whole.

‘Engineering entrepreneurship’ comes of age?

This article is a great lament about the lack of experiential education in engineer while promoting Engineering as a 'clever' occupation | Other Design Thinking in Science Entrepreneurship | | Re-imagining education for entrepreneurs through design-based enterprising mind-sets. | #DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot uses expert-driven AI to choose top articles/posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento Like this feed? Subscribe here |

View source article at “To Engineer is to Create Skilfully”

The whole essence of engineering education is to enable students to create solutions for complex technical problems. But the model being followed in most educational set-ups in India focusses more intensively on teaching just the principles and not their application. Such a way of education, which promotes the ‘Chalk and Talk Model’, trains students to ceaselessly gulp all the information, but nowhere tests the student’s skill to apply the same in a real-world scenario. When such graduates are dispersed into the job market, the mismatch between what the industry so desires and what the education system offers is realised. Such a mismatch handicaps the whole purpose of education which is, to enable individuals to make a living and be better human beings.

A place where almost all the educational set-ups lack is fostering entrepreneurial culture within the academic set-up. Our education system has always encouraged students to get placed and never to innovate, and start-up. Education should be liberating and not constraining, and such an approach puts barriers in the learning process. Hence, entrepreneurial guidance to identify and pursue innovative ideas, in sync with industry standards pushes the growth graph of the students beyond the academic boundaries and proves to be an essential part of their education.

Prasheel Suryavanshi is a Vice-Chancellor of Avantika University, Ujjain.

COVID-19 and innovation in the workplace

This article has great content on COVID-19 is about COVID-19 and innovation -- breaking traditional ways of thinking about work, productivity and people management. | Other Design Thinking in Health and Medical Entrepreneurship  | Re-imagining education for entrepreneurs through design-based enterprising mind-sets. | #DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot uses expert-driven AI to choose top articles/posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento Like this feed? Subscribe here | It's similar to Empathic mindset: Key to design entrepreneurship

Sources: View source article at Creating an Outbreak of Innovation in a Pandemic https://isg-one.com/consulting/articles/creating-an-outbreak-of-innovation-in-a-pandemic.

  1. Apply design thinking. Engage employees in design-thinking workshops that encourage questioning across a broad spectrum of functional areas.
  2. Develop a virtual lab for experimentation. Create a forum for testing ways to positively impact the remote employee working experience.
  3. Create diverse networks. Find ways to connect a diverse network of individuals who vary significantly in their backgrounds and perspectives but who share common threads of experience and knowledge that will elicit new and productive insights, and encourage them to explore ideas together.

View source article at COVID-19 and innovation in the workplace

The Endless Frontier Act Could Bring back American Innovation

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | entreVersity uses expert-driven AI to choose top articles/posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases | Like this feed? Subscribe here | John Kao (radical creativity for distrupted time writes great content on How the Endless Frontier Act could bring the USA back from the brink of losing its competitive edge.| Other Design Thinking in Transformative Innovation

Kao, John. “Wake Up America! Our Innovation Agenda Needs A Tune Up. The Endless Frontier Act Tells Us How.” Forbes. Accessed June 6, 2020. https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnkao/2020/05/27/wake-up-america-our-innovation-agenda-needs-a-tune-up--the-endless-frontier-act-tells-us-how/.

View source article at Wake Up America! Our Innovation Agenda Needs A Tune Up. The Endless Frontier Act Tells Us How.

American innovation is deep in the red zone. We currently lack a national strategy to guide us and our innovation base is eroding. Federal funding for scientific research has declined along with respect for the value of science. Domestic opportunities for young scientists have narrowed. Our traditional leadership role in the world has given way to a kind of innovation isolationism as we shed a variety of international collaborations. Our current posture regarding immigration curtails the traditional supply of upwardly mobile talent looking to align with the American dream. And our national agenda regarding artificial intelligence and data science simply cannot compare at the moment with the cohesive and well-funded national program that is on display in China. FANG valuations and legions of digital millionaires in the San Francisco Bay Area are newsworthy, but do not add up to a national agenda for innovation.

Enter the Endless Frontier Act, a $100 billion bipartisan bill now being put forth in Congress at a historically resonant time. It was 75 years ago that science policy. Of course, passing some version of the Endless Frontier Act will be the result of negotiation and the political process that lies ahead. But it already has the potential to steer us in the right direction to be the best “ Innovation Nation” of which we are capable.

Design Education and Innovation for Brand-driven Innovation

This significant article has great content about Design Entrepreneurship and Innovation and on how design education (including design entrepreneurship) can better prepare students to play value-creating roles in brand-driven innovation| Other posts in Design Thinking | Re-imagining education for entrepreneurs through design-based enterprising mind-sets. | #DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot uses expert-driven AI to choose top articles/posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento Like this feed? Subscribe here |

Sources: Montana, Carlos. “Strategy, Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Design Education for Future Practice.” Medium, May 17, 2020. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341344188_Strategy_Entrepreneurship_and_Innovation_in_Design_Education_for_Future_Practice. and https://medium.com/dubai-institute-of-design-and-innovation/strategy-entrepreneurship-and-innovation-in-design-education-for-future-practice-2331ca6ed4de.

How can design education better prepare students to play value-creating roles in future practices? This paper discusses strategy, entrepreneurship and innovation in design education, using examples of educational projects initiated by the authors. These projects range from: strategic design of systems, services and user-experiences to projects that enhance entrepreneurial skills and the intervention of designers — educating management students. The paper offers ideas for design educators and exemplifies increasing values in design education.

Design disciplines are evolving with society and technology, and a ‘dematerialisation’ of design is manifesting in service design, user experience design, digital design, strategic design, and others. An interesting example of this evolution is the recently changed orientation of the former International Council of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSID), which was re-branded as the World Design Organization (WDO). WDO (2017) proposed that ‘(Industrial) Design is a strategic problem-solving process that drives innovation, builds business success, and leads to a better quality of life through innovative products, systems, services, and experiences’. This demonstrates a change in roles within design, from stylistic, cosmetic or decorative, to more tactic roles such as making products and services more functional and desirable, through interaction design, experience design and brand-driven innovation. The broader role of contemporary design acquires new value as a strategic resource, capable of fostering innovation, sustainability, as well as the creation of new business models and national policies which are shaping today’s society.

Design disciplines are evolving with society and technology, and a ‘dematerialisation’ of design is manifesting in service design, user experience design, digital design, strategic design, and others. An interesting example of this evolution is the recently changed orientation of the former International Council of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSID), which was re-branded as the World Design Organization (WDO). WDO (2017) proposed that ‘(Industrial) Design is a strategic problem-solving process that drives innovation, builds business success, and leads to a better quality of life through innovative products, systems, services, and experiences’. This demonstrates a change in roles within design, from stylistic, cosmetic or decorative, to more tactic roles such as making products and services more functional and desirable, through interaction design, experience design and brand-driven innovation. The broader role of contemporary design acquires new value as a strategic resource, capable of fostering innovation, sustainability, as well as the creation of new business models and national policies which are shaping today’s society.

Use Case: China not using Design Thinking in Corona Virus

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | Like this magazine? Subscribe here | design thinking and coronavirus COVID-19 | Expert-driven AI top articles posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases | "design thinking" and "corona virus" or covid-19 | Other Design Thinking in Health & Medicine

Beijing tends to prefer solutions that involve top-down edict and central control rather than “empathy” and “ideation.” The Wuhan outbreak, and China’s struggle to contain it, demonstrates the need for a different approach.

Many of the early victims of coronavirus worked in or visited one of Wuhan’s largest wet markets, where a wide array of wildlife species—bats, civet cats, snakes, live wolf pups—were sold as food. Experts say that close contact with these creatures can accelerate the mutations that spawn viruses capable of jumping to humans. Chinese authorities imposed a temporary nationwide ban on the trade of wild animals and quarantined all wildlife breeding centers. Designers may not be able to change a country’s dietary preferences. But they could address the infrastructure around wet market hygiene.

Rhodes, M. (2020, January 28). The coronavirus problem could be solved with design thinking. Fortune. https://finance.yahoo.com/news/coronavirus-problem-could-solved-design-180743459.html

Many of the early victims of coronavirus worked in or visited one of Wuhan’s largest wet markets, where a wide array of wildlife species—bats, civet cats, snakes, live wolf pups—were sold as food. Experts say that close contact with these creatures can accelerate the mutations that spawn viruses capable of jumping to humans. Chinese authorities imposed a temporary nationwide ban on the trade of wild animals and quarantined all wildlife breeding centers. Designers may not be able to change a country’s dietary preferences. But they could address the infrastructure around wet market hygiene.

View source article at Design Thinking can contribute to tackle the Corona virus emergency

Post-Virus: Evidence needed for coronavirus and business reinvention

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | coronavirus and business reinvention| Like this magazine? Subscribe here | Business reinvention in the post-virus era  | Expert-driven AI top articles posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases | More on Health & Medicine

Image of Corona Virus Business Word Cloud
Corona Virus Business Word Cloud

Whoever is behind Citi Small Business has their head screwed on right!  The author takes an evidence-based approach to entrepreneurship and design.  Relying on evidence to reinvent your business improves business success. They make reference to the leaders in the field:  Discovery Driven Planning, pioneered by Rita McGrath[i]; the Lean Startup Method, crisply described by Ash Maurya[ii]; and Design Thinking, first articulated by David Kelley.[iii]

Business has changed, perhaps forever, due to the coronavirus. To start, let's admit the obvious disruptions to existing businesses: supply chains are missing a link; company owners have little cash on hand; employees are eager but scared; consumer confidence is low except for staple products and services; and consumer habits have shifted to online-only channels.

After business managers have made immediate decisions to reduce cash burn, you have a lull during self-isolation to contemplate what the future might hold. Once we emerge from this crisis, entrepreneurs must re-invent or pivot their product offerings to survive in the post-coronavirus economy used evidence-based scientific methods.  We call it Hypothesis-Based Entrepreneurship.  In the future, we have to re-state each of our basic assumptions as a testable hypothesis .

Citi Small Business. (n.d.). How To Reinvent Your Business To Thrive After The Coronavirus—Forbes. How To Reinvent Your Business To Thrive After The Coronavirus - Forbes. Retrieved March 29, 2020, from https://citi-small-business.blogspot.com/2020/03/how-to-reinvent-your-business-to-thrive.html

[i] McGrath, R. G. (2010). Business models: A discovery driven approach. Long Range Planning, 43(2), 247–261. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024630109000508; McGrath, R. G., & MacMillan, I. C. (1995a). Discovery driven planning. https://go.aws/2z9IVzt ; McGrath, R. G., & MacMillan, I. C. (1995b). Discovery-driven planning. Harvard Business Review, 73(4), 44. i&e-hf. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1198124&Fmt=7&clientId=4676&RQT=309&VName=PQD; McGrath, R. G., & MacMillan, I. C. (2009). Discovery-driven growth: A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity. Harvard business press. https://goo.gl/dvpU2L

[ii] Maurya, A. (2012a). Measure Product/Market Fit. In Running lean: Iterate from plan A to a plan that works (pp. 155–168). O’Reilly Media. https://books.google.com.mx/books?hl=en&lr=&id=I_MdnQZZdusC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=Running+Lean:+Iterate+from+Plan+A+to+a+Plan+That+Works&ots=AH0eAc_M6t&sig=HIyoLJ7aWEgMNqAg3CNvYaXDdGI; Maurya, A. (2012b, February 27). Why Lean Canvas vs Business Model Canvas? Love the Problem. https://blog.leanstack.com/why-lean-canvas-vs-business-model-canvas-af62c0f250f0; Maurya, A. (2012c). Running Lean: Iterate from Plan A to a Plan That Works (2 edition). O’Reilly Media. https://goo.gl/cLgGVh; Maurya, A. (2016). Scaling Lean: Mastering the Key Metrics for Startup Growth. Portfolio. https://leanstack.com/scalinglean

[iii] Kelley, David. (n.d.). How to build your creative confidence. Retrieved September 18, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16p9YRF0l-g; Kelley, T. (2001). The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America’s Leading Design Firm (1 edition). Doubleday. https://www.ideo.com/post/the-art-of-innovation; Kelley, T., & Kelley, D. (2012, December 1). Reclaim Your Creative Confidence. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2012/12/reclaim-your-creative-confidence; Kelley, T., & Kelley, D. (2013). Creative confidence: Unleashing the creative potential within us all. Crown Pub. https://www.creativeconfidence.com/

View source article at How To Reinvent Your Business To Thrive After The Coronavirus - Forbes

Open-source 3D-printed coronavirus ventilator prototype

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | Like this magazine? Subscribe here | coronavirus ventilator prototype  | Expert-driven AI top articles posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases |

Image of Open Source Ventilator Prototype
Etherington, C. (n.d.). Open-source project spins up 3D-printed ventilator validation prototype in just one week. TechCrunch. Retrieved March 29, 2020, from https://techcrunch.com/2020/03/19/open-source-project-spins-up-3d-printed-ventilator-validation-prototype-in-just-one-week/

In a great example of what can happen when smart, technically-oriented people come together in a time of need, an open-source hardware project started by a group including Irish entrepreneur Colin Keogh and Breeze Automation CEO and co-founder Gui Calavanti has produced a coronavirus ventilator prototype using 3D-printed parts and readily available, inexpensive material. The ventilator prototype was designed and produced in just seven days, after the project spun up on Facebook and attracted participation from over 300 engineers, medical professionals and researchers.

The prototype will now enter into a validation process by the Irish Health Services Executive (HSE), the country’s health regulatory body. This will technically only validate it for use in Ireland, which ironically looks relatively well-stocked for ventilator hardware, but it will be a key stamp of approval that could pave the way for its deployment across countries where there are shortages, including low-income nations.

Etherington, C. (n.d.). Open-source project spins up 3D-printed ventilator validation prototype in just one week. TechCrunch. Retrieved March 29, 2020, from https://techcrunch.com/2020/03/19/open-source-project-spins-up-3d-printed-ventilator-validation-prototype-in-just-one-week/

Wonder whether the Irish are using the Validation Board, by the Lean Startup Machine, which is a tool to test assumptions for a coronavirus ventilator prototype. Coming up with new ideas is not the hardest part of true innovation. The hard part is to check if someone is waiting for it in the market. The Validation Board is based on Eric Ries’s Lean Startup methodology.

How do you know if your idea is as good as you think?  

  1. Hypothesis to validate: Write the hypothesis to validate in this activity. What do you expect to validate, confirm, verify with this work? What decisions do you need to make based on this research? Remember that the hypothesis must be falsifiable.
  2. Describe the validation technique: In which audiences will you validate (e.g. customers, distributors, subject matter experts, etc.)? What method will you use? (e.g. an experiment, a survey, a focus group, etc.) What tools, materials do you need (e.g. Prototype, question guide, questionnaire, etc.), etc.?
  3. Results And Analysis. Report the results and perform an analysis of the information you found.

Most likely you’ll make adjustments to your business model

View source article at Open-source project spins up 3D-printed ventilator validation prototype in just one week

Use case: Open source ventilator prototype from design thinking

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | Like this magazine? Subscribe here | Israeli open source ventilator prototype | Expert-driven AI top articles posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases | coronavirus design thinking COVID-19 prototyping| Other Design Thinking in Health & Medicine  | See also Dr. Eitan Eliram

Image of Ambuvent ventilator
Ambuvent ventilator by Israeli tech startup @Giora Kornblau https://socialimpactil.com/corona-virus/
Image of Ambuvent ventilator
Ambuvent ventilator by Israeli tech startup https://www.linkedin.com/posts/eitaneliram_rapidprototyping-productdesign-makers-activity-6647229287432798208-UqSP/

Innovative Israeli makers group just hacked this Ambuvent open source ventilator prototype. Based on design thinking, rapid prototyping and open code source mentality this team of 40 makers, engineers and physicians led by Dr. Alkahar build this new machine in just 5 days. They defined the bottleneck of hospitals in Israel: lack of ventilators in ICU units. So they transformed this manual resuscitator into a new breathing machine. It is expected that within a week to 10 days Israel will have 700+ new units for its growing Coronavirus patients. Cost per unit is just under 450$. Institutions from Italy England and Canada are now in touch for collaborative manufacturing. Totally free from any IP, sent with love from the Israeli team to heel anyone in need anywhere in the world. This article contains a list of Innovative Israeli companies who are contributing to the combat against the Corona virus pandemic. SDG 3 (sub-target 3.3) aims to achieve by 2030 “the end of the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases”.

Top 10 Innovative Israeli tech for COVID-19. (2020, March 24). Social Impact Israel. https://socialimpactil.com/corona-virus/

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Use Case: Coronavirus and wet markets

Image of Wuhan Wet Market
People at a seafood stall in Wuhan, China, in November 2019, whence coronavirus may have sprung.
Credit: Arend Kuester via Flickr. CC BY-NC 2.0.

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | Like this magazine? Subscribe here | design thinking and coronavirus COVID-19 | Expert-driven AI top articles posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases | "design thinking" and "corona virus" or covid-19 | Other Design Thinking in Health & Medicine See also Virus Sparks Soul-Searching Over China’s Wild Animal Trade and Coronavirus or antibiotic resistance: Our appetite for animals (wild and domestic) poses big disease risks

Design is about more than creating beautiful objects. We’ve embraced the broad notion of design that includes “design thinking,” the use of empathy, brainstorming, prototyping, testing, and other techniques to solve practical problems in areas not traditionally associated with design.

Already, designers and design thinkers play a vital role in solving the identified pain points such as poor hospital administration, government bureaucracy, lack of stockpiles, and policy indecision.

This article describes three ways design thinkers could contribute. One has to do with Cleaning up China’s wet markets. Many of the early victims of coronavirus worked in or visited one of Wuhan’s largest wet markets, where a wide array of wildlife species—bats, civet cats, snakes, live wolf pups—were sold as food. . . . Designers may not be able to change a country’s dietary preferences. But they could address the infrastructure Coronavirus and wet markets hygiene.

Design thinking’s methods aren’t widely understood in China. Beijing tends to prefer solutions that involve top-down edict and central control rather than “empathy” and “ideation.” The Wuhan outbreak, and China’s struggle to contain it, demonstrates the need for a different approach.

We could also rethinking China’s health care system: China does not have enough hospitals, and the ones it has are bureaucratic, inefficient, and poorly organized

Chandler, C. (2020, January 28). The coronavirus problem could be solved with design thinking. Fortune. https://finance.yahoo.com/news/coronavirus-problem-could-solved-design-180743459.html

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Coronavirus temperature gun: iconic innovation needs a redesign

#DesignEntrepreneurship Magazine Bot | Like this magazine? Subscribe here | Redesign of the coronavirus temperature gun | Expert-driven AI top articles posts about #DesignEntrepreneurship, #DesignThinking, and #LeanStartUp in #entrepreneurshipeducation #entrepreneurialmindset #emprendimiento More Design Thinking Use Cases | Other Design Thinking in Health & Medicine  

Temperature gun
Coronavirus: We need to rethink the design of the temperature gun—Quartz. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2020, from https://qz.com/1806728/coronavirus-we-need-to-rethink-the-design-of-the-temperature-gun/

Amid the global coronavirus scare, the new normal in airports, cafes, schools, hotels, and various checkpoints is the temperature gun, also called the infrared thermometer. Health officials now aim those unsettling temperature guns at ordinary people. This non-contact infrared device has become the iconic design object of the coronavirus epidemic.

Design thinkers have an opportunity here—especially now that temperature guns are becoming standard equipment for tackling Covid-19 and future pandemics.

Designers have proven how a bit of imagination and empathy—or “design thinking”—can help humanize ominous medical technologies.

A classic example is GE’s line of kid-friendly CT scanners made to look like a pirate ship.

Quito, A. (n.d.). Photos: A temperature gun to the head has become an iconic coronavirus image. Quartz. Retrieved March 29, 2020, from https://qz.com/1806728/coronavirus-we-need-to-rethink-the-design-of-the-temperature-gun/

View source article at Photos: A temperature gun to the head has become an iconic coronavirus image

Criminal entrepreneurs in Australia

Just as social and business entrepreneurs share many personality traits there are many of those traits that they share with criminal entrepreneurs. These people have to be excellent risk managers and information managers. They are future-oriented organisation builders. Like business entrepreneurs, they are continually working the edge or the margin.

Since the beginning, Australia has had more than its share of larrakins, ne'er-do-well, and buccaneer-preneurs. In Australia, the word entrepreneur once had a very bad connotation.  Back in the 1980s, it all looked so easy, the way the Aussie business magazines told it. The answer was simple. Australia’s ideal was the high-flying entrepreneur – not in the sense of a risk taker developing a new enterprise, but more as a corporate predator making money from shuffling paper assets.[i] Such were the excesses that it cost Australia’s commercial standing and the reputation of its entrepreneurs dearly and that damage continued well into the 2000's.

In 1992, the Australia Institute of Criminology described entrepreneurial crime this way:

Entrepreneurial crime as a concept refers to punishable acts which are committed by individuals in controlling positions within corporations, using the resources and power deriving from the corporate form as a vehicle to achieve ends which benefit the entrepreneur personally … Factors contributing to the commission of entrepreneurial crime range from the psychological characteristics of individuals operating in a corporate culture which values risk taking, to factors at the macro-economic level which may provide opportunities for such individuals.[ii]

Rogue's gallery of Australian criminal entrepreneurs

Here’s a rogue’s gallery of Australia’s criminal entrepreneurial past whose legacy present-day entrepreneurs must confront.

Christopher Skase’s activities are now the stuff of legend. Born in Melbourne in 1948, Skase became Australia’s most wanted white collar criminal when he lost $1.5 billion of other people’s money and then skipped the country. He exploited the adventurous spirit of Australian investors and then, when it all unravelled, began a perverse appeal to the Australian sense of a fair go. Skase fled to Majorca, lived in material comfort, complained at every attempt to bring him back and died thumbing his nose at the prosecutors. The Brisbane Courier Mail editorialised philosophically after Skase’s death in 2001: ‘If Skase represented most of the failings of corporate behaviour in the 1980s, the failure to bring him to justice spoke of the inability of successive governments to protect ordinary investors’.[iii]

House of Boond
Bond's ego, greed and ambition saw him overreach beyond all measure until his empire collapsed, leaving him as the country's greatest villain with the biggest ever bankruptcy.

Alan Bond came to Perth from England as a boy. He put together a land speculation company with just $1000 and interests eventually included Swan brewery, Channel 9, radio, property development and oil exploration. By the mid-1980s his personal wealth was put at some $400 million and he splashed it around with abandon. The stock market crash of 1987 gave him a $980 million loss. In 1997 Bond went to jail for criminal dishonesty in his business dealings. He was released from prison in 2000 but he still owes thousands of investors.

Goldberg was known as the "square dancer" for his habit of rapidly changing business partners.

Abe Goldberg, Australia’s biggest bankrupt, was one 1980s entrepreneur who found a refuge in Poland. His Lintner textiles group, which produced garments under the Speedo, King Gee, Stubbies and Bradmill labels, collapsed owing $1.5 billion. Goldberg himself had personal debts of more than $790 million when he left the country in 1990, just days before his bankruptcy action began. However, in 1995 his creditors accepted $5.1 million and Abe Goldberg was discharged from his bankruptcy.

George Hescu
George Herscu is driven away in the back of a paddy van after being sentenced to prison on bribery charges in 1990

George Herscu lived in exile after his property and retail business Hooker Corporation went into liquidation in 1989 with debts of nearly $1.7 billion. Herscu mortgaged Hooker to the hilt and then expanded into the US with a series of disastrous shopping malls that increased debts by $1 billion in three years. He completed a five-year jail term for paying $100,000 in bribes to a Queensland State government minister.

John Spalvins resided on Hamilton Island following the mid-1990s disintegration of his $2 billion Adelaide Steamship group, one of the country’s largest industrial and retail combines, with debts of $470 million. In the 1980s Adelaide Steamship was one of Australia’s largest industrial groups with a market capital of $2 billion and ownership of Woolworths, Penfolds Wines, Petersville and David Jones. By the mid-1990s it was worth a mere $10 million with debts of $470 million.

New Zealander Bruce Judge built up a small Brisbane quarry operation called South Pine Quarries in Ariadne, a $1.8 billion conglomerate before the global share market crash of October 1987 sent the company down. He was behind a myriad of acquisitions and projects that were often done on the telephone or over lunch and often on a handshake with the paperwork done later. Judge’s voracious expansion appetite led to Ariadne acquiring companies in a dozen countries with assets ranging from frozen bean curd to Alaskan oil, American building societies to the Wet ‘n Wild theme park on the Gold Coast, swimming pools in Cincinnati, a finance company in England and property developments in Hong Kong. Judge has retired to the south of France and obscurity.

'Entrepreneur' no longer a bad name

Fortunately there has been a significant shift in Australians’ attitudes. Once a negative term – thanks to corporate cavaliers – an entrepreneur is now someone to be admired. Entrepreneurs and the brands they stand behind are being embraced by consumers who now see big companies as the bad guys, not entrepreneurs. Today’s Australian entrepreneurs are regarded as people prepared to have a go and take some risks.[iv] ‘People have stopped associating the word entrepreneur with the likes of the Bonds and Skases and now see them as battlers prepared to take on the big corporations’, BRW said. Some 97 per cent of people who responded to a BRW survey said they admired anyone who went out and started their own company, whereas 64 per cent said they did not trust big companies.

[i] Brian Toohey, ‘Reporting on Business: A Case of Market Failure’ in Tumbling Dice: the Story of Modern Economic Policy, Heinemann, 1994.

[ii] Boroni A. Halstead, Entrepreneurial Crime: Impact, Detection and Regulation, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1992: 1–2, www.aic.govt.au.

[iii] ‘Death of an Unloved Rogue’, Courier Mail, Brisbane, 7 August 2001.

[iv] ‘Entrepreneurs Now Back in Vogue: Australian Survey’, Asia Pulse, 5 May 2005.

Future of design thinking education (Microsoft)