go to newsletter page


[1] Hassi, L., & Laakso, M. (2011). Making sense of design thinking. In T.-M. Karalainen, M. Koria, & M. Salimäki (Eds.), IDBM papers (Vol. 1, pp. 51–62). Helsinki: IDBM Program, Aalto University. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301293326_IDBM_Papers_Vol1.

[2] Simon (1969). The sciences of the artificial, 111. Retrieved from https://monoskop.org/images/9/9c/Simon_Herbert_A_The_Sciences_of_the_Artificial_3rd_ed.pdf. Simon did have one predecessor, L. Bruce Archer, who argued that design was ‘not merely a craft-based skill but should be considered a knowledge-based discipline in its own right’: Archer, L. B. (1979). Design as a discipline. Design Studies, 1(1), 17–20.

[3] Cross, N. (1982). Designerly ways of knowing. Design Studies, 3, 221–7. See also Cross, N. (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. Springer. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/1-84628-301-9_1.pdf; Cross, N. (2001). Designerly ways of knowing: Design discipline versus design science. Design Issues, 17(3), 49–55; Cross, N. (2007). From a design science to a design discipline: Understanding designerly ways of knowing and thinking. Design Research Now, 41–54.

[4] Lawson, B. (1980, 2006). How designers think: The design process demystified. Routledge, 86–7. Retrieved from http://www.hifa.edu.cn/CMShyx/201303/201303290142034.pdf

[5] Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–69.

[6] Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked problems in design thinking. Design Issues, 8, 5–21. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1511637

[7] Burnette, C. (2016). Bridging design and business thinking. In S. Junginger & J. Faust (Eds.),Designing Business and Management, 95–104. Bloomsbury Publishing; Szasz, O. (2016). Design thinking as an indication of a paradigm shift. In S. Junginger & J. Faust (Eds.), Designing Business and Management, 105–16. Bloomsbury Publishing; Cross, A. (1980). Design and general education. Design Studies, 1(4), 202–6; Schrand, T. (2016). Design thinking as a strategy for consensus in general education reform. Peer Review, 18(3), 17–20.; Marber, P., & Araya, D. (2017). The evolution of liberal arts in the global age. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2RbzDGG ; Miller, P. N. (2015, March 26). Is ‘design thinking’ the new liberal arts? The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.chronicle.com/article/Is-Design-Thinking-the-New/228779 ; Miller, P. N. (2017). Is ‘design thinking’ the new liberal arts? In P. Marber & D. Araya (Eds.), The evolution of liberal arts in the global age, 167. Routledge; Smith College, Maestria Virtual (n.d.). Design thinking and the liberal arts: A framework for re-imagining a liberal arts education. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/25787095/Design_Thinking_and_the_Liberal_Arts_a_framework_for_re-imagining_a_liberal_arts_education?auto=download ; Wladawsky-Berger, I. (2016). Is design thinking the ‘new liberal arts’? Retrieved from http://blog.irvingwb.com/blog/2016/10/design-thinking-and-the-liberal-arts.html

[8] Kelley, T. (2001). The art of innovation: Lessons in creativity from IDEO, America’s leading design firm (Vol. 10). Broadway Business; Kelley, D., & Kelley, T. (2013). Creative confidence: Unleashing the creative potential within us all. Crown Business; Kelley, T. (2005). The ten faces of innovation: IDEO’s strategies for beating the devil’s advocate & driving creativity throughout your organization. Broadway Business; Kelley, T., & Kelley, D. (2012). Reclaim your creative confidence. Harvard Business Review, 90, 115–8

[9] Bolland, R. J., & Collopy, F. (2004). Managing as designing. Stanford University Press; Dunne, D., & Martin, R. (2006). Design thinking and how it will change management education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5, 512–23; Florida, R. L. (2004). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York, NY: Basic Books. Gullberg, G., Landström, A., Widmark, E., & Nyström, M. (2005). Design thinking in business innovation. REMOTEL. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:414819; Heskett, J. (2005). Design: A very short introduction (Vol. 136). Oxford University Press; Kelley (2005). The ten faces of innovation; Pink, D. H. (2005). A whole new mind: Moving from the information age to the conceptual age (1st edn). New York: Riverhead Books.

[10] Brown, T. (2008). Design thinking. Harvard Business Review, June. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2008/06/design-thinking ; Brown, T. (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. New York: HarperBusiness; Lockwood, T. (2009). Transition: How to become a more design-minded organization. Design Management Review, 20, 28–37; Martin, R. (2009). What is design thinking anyway? Retrieved from http://designobserver.com/feature/what-is-design-thinking-anyway/11097 ; Martin (2009). The design of business.

[11] Acumen + HCD (2009). The human-centered design toolkit. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2MQ9wY7 .

[12] Acumen + HCD (2009). The human-centered design toolkit; IDEO. (2009). Design kit: The human-centered design toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.designkit.org/; Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stranford (2010). An introduction to design thinking process guide. The Institute of Design at Stanford: Stanford. Retrieved from https://stanford.io/2KykQ6I ; IDEO LLC & Riverdale Country School (2012). Design thinking for educators toolkit (2nd edn). Retrieved from https://designthinkingforeducators.com/; Liedtka, J., & Ogilvie, T. (2014). Designing for growth : A design thinking tool kit for managers. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Designing-Growth-Thinking-Managers-Publishing/dp/0231158386 .

[13] IDEO LLC (2015). The field guide to human-centered design. Retrieved from http://www.designkit.org/resources/1; Liedtka, J., Ogilvie, T., & Brozenske, R. (2014). The designing for growth field book: A step-by-step project guide. Columbia University Press. Retrieved from http://www.designingforgrowthbook.com/ .

[14] Martin, R. (2007). Design and business: Why can’t we be friends? Journal of Business Strategy, 28, 6–12.

[15] JR (2007, 24 September). Managing innovation. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB119023924039732943 .

Follow me
Latest posts by Dr Federico | Howard H Frederick (see all)

Reader Interactions


  1. Eric Anthony Spieth says

    Outstanding continued explorations.

    I am particularly intrigued by the crossroads of design & science. In my youth, my first impulses and compulsions all revolved around physics. As I castabout with with Einstein and Newton I became enamoured.

    My path was circuitous and tended towards distraction, I found science, art and design equally compelling. For me it was all exciting.

    Eventually and years later I discovered Feynman and it all coalesced.

    Conga drums and science?

    To me it made perfect sense.

    Likewise, for me there is no difference or disparity between the scientific method and human centered design/design thinking. Both are simply identical lenses towards a process of discovery.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Enjoy this blog? Help spread the word :-)

Visit Us
Follow Me
Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, the content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright Howard Frederick articles are all timestamped and protected by Blockchain.